2 A useful acronym to help remember these factors is : LOWER Near Water There are 6 factors that affect climate in Canada. They are:LatitudeOcean CurrentsWinds and Air MassesElevationReliefbeing Near to WaterA useful acronym to help remember these factors is : LOWER Near Water
3 Latitude and ClimateLatitude: gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator -measured in degreesThe hottest places on Earth are found at the equatorAs you move AWAY from the equator (either N or S) the average temperature decreases, and the temperature range increases.Temperature Range: Temperature difference between the coldest monthly temperature and the warmest average monthly temperature.
4 Why does this occur?The amount of energy hitting any spot on the earth is equalBut,Because the earth is curved, at certain points this energy is spread out over larger distances
5 Therefore,Temperature decreases as you move north or south of the equator, because of Earth’s curvature. Less light from the sun is hitting per square meter the further you travel from the equator.
6 Ocean Currents and Climate An ocean current is continuous movement of water along the ocean’s surfaceOcean currents bring warmer water from the equatorial areas
7 Ocean Currents and Climate Current temperature affects air temperature passing over itWest coast:North Pacific current = warm warmer air Warm BC climateCold Labrador current meets Warm Gulf stream near Newfoundland, creating a foggy climate
8 Therefore,Ocean currents affect climate because they influence the temperature of the air coming off the water.
9 Winds and ClimateUsing your textbook, pg 148, define the following terms:Air mass:Wind:Prevailing wind:Polar front:Jet stream:Large volume of air that takes on climatic conditions .Movement of air from high pressure to low pressure areas.Well-established patterns of windsBoundary between dry, polar air and warm, wet tropical airWest to east movement of air high above polar frontBecause air masses take on their climatic conditions,Ocean air masses = lots of moisture + warm/coolLand air masses = very dry + warm/cool
10 Winds affects Climate? Air moves, High Pressure Low Pressure Creates patterns calledPREVAILING WINDSIn Canada, blow West East(WESTERLIES)Move air masses(affects and changes weather)
11 This can have MAJOR implications on weather JET STREAMThe east to west movement of the jet stream controls the location of the polar front.N of jet stream =COLDS of jet stream =WARMThis can have MAJOR implications on weatherIf the jet stream shifts, there can be large shifts in temperature
19 Therefore,The presence of mountains will cause cooler and wetter climates on windward sides of the mountains near bodies of water, and drier and warmer climates on leeward sides.
20 Near Water and Climate Continental Climate (Not close to body of water)Interior locationsMaritime Climate(Close to large water body)Coastal locations
21 Near Water and Climate Continental Climate (Not close to body of water)Interior locationsLarge temp range (hot =summer, cold =winter)Low amounts of precipitationMaritime Climate(Close to large water body)Coastal locationsRelatively small temp rangeA lot of precipitation compared to continental climate
22 Therefore,The temperature range and amount of precipitation can be influenced by the proximity to a large body of water
23 What Climate Factor(s) is Affecting the following regions in Canada?