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The Factors that Affect Climate Grade Nine Socials.

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Presentation on theme: "The Factors that Affect Climate Grade Nine Socials."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Factors that Affect Climate Grade Nine Socials

2 What Affects Weather and Climate?
There are Global Factors: 1. Ocean Currents 2. Air Masses and Wind 3. Latitude 4. Clouds and Precipitation There are Regional Factors: Altitude (Elevation) Bodies of Water Mountain Barriers


4 Ocean Currents

5 #1 Ocean Currents The world’s oceans are constantly in motion. Tides move the water up and down while currents move the water from place to place. Four ocean currents affect Canadian climate: Two East Coast Currents Two West Coast Currents

6 East Coast Currents They are: A. Labrador Current (cold)
B. Gulf Stream Current (warm)

7 West Coast Currents They are: A. Alaska Current (warm)
B. North Pacific Current (warm)

8 Current Summary Canada’s west coast has warmer climate because of the 2 warm currents there. North Pacific (Warm)




12 Warm Currents: warmer climate Cold Currents: cooler climate
How do ocean currents affect climate? Warm Currents: warmer climate Cold Currents: cooler climate

13 The Gulf Stream

14 #2 Air Masses Large volumes of air with similar temperatures and moisture conditions. They move toward Canada and influence our weather and climate. They are formed in certain places on Earth. Where they form enables us to predict what they will bring. They move as a result of changing pressure conditions. It’s leading edge is called a Front.

15 Canada’s Four Air Masses
Canada is affected by 4 air masses: 1. Maritime Tropical 2. Maritime Polar 3. Continental Arctic 4. Continental Tropical 3 2 2 4 1 1




19 Air Masses and Wind They generally blow eastward across Canada (from B.C. to N.L) Canadian winds follow the direction of the high altitude wind called the jet stream.

20 Jet Stream The jet stream always flows eastward but changes its position and speed from summer to winter. It moves slower and is found further north in the summer. After air masses arrive in Canada, they move eastward following the path of the jet stream.

21 #3 Latitude One of the most important influences on climate is latitude. How far north or south of the equator a region is influences how warm or cold it will be. Higher latitude locations get less direct sunlight. Sunlight strikes these high altitudes at an angle. Ex. Canada is, on average, colder than the USA.

22 Latitude


24 As latitude ________, the average annual temperature _________.
How does latitude affect climate? As latitude ________, the average annual temperature _________. increases decreases Temperature 0° Latitude °

25 #4 Precipitation Precipitation is a component of climate.
When warm air, carrying water vapour, rises, cools, and releases the vapour as precipitation. Warm air is lighter than cold air and holds the most water vapour Depending on the air temperature precipitation could be solid (ex. snow) or liquid (ex. rain).

26 Precipitation (Cont’d)
There are THREE general things that can force warm air to rise. They are: A. Fronts of air masses B. Convection C. Mountains

27 Air Masses Front Front When air masses meet at a front, the collision often results in changeable weather, or rainfall.


29 B. Convectional Precipitation
Sunlight heats a point on the earth surface. Warm air, over this hot spot, rises. The warm air cools and the vapour in it is released as precipitation.

30 B. Convectional Precipitation

31 C. Orographic Precipitation
Wind forces warm air to rise up over a mountain. This air cools, clouds form, and precipitation begins.

32 Orographic Effect

33 Windward Side: ___________ Leeward Side: _____________
How does the Orographic Effect affect climate? Windward Side: ___________ Leeward Side: _____________ cool, moist warm, dry

34 Canada’s Climate Regions
Canada is big enough to have several climate regions or zones. They experience similar weather conditions. Canada has 4 climate zones: Zone B, C, D, and E

35 Canada’s Climate Regions

36 Zone B It is located in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Here the climate is dry.

37 Zone C This zone is found along the coast of British Columbia (including Vancouver Island). The climate is warm and moist. Vancouver Island has climate like that in southern Europe (Mediterrean)

38 Zone D This is the largest climate zone in Canada – over 70%.
The climate is cool and moist. Most of this zone has precipitation throughout the year. The northern part of this zone has very short summers.

39 Zone E It is the second largest climate zone in Canada – about 25%.
It’s located in the far north of Canada. Here the climate very cold and dry.

40 Regional Factors Climate regions may have features which make their weather unique. These features include: A. Altitude (elevation) B. Bodies of Water C. Mountain Barriers

41 A. Altitude As altitude increases the air temperature decreases.
Places with higher elevation are colder.

42 Elevation

43 As elevation _________, the average temperature __________.
How does elevation affect climate? As elevation _________, the average temperature __________. increases decreases Temperature Elevation

44 B. Bodies of Water Summer sunshine heats up land quickly and heats up water slowly.. In winter, land cools off quickly but water cools off slowly. Areas close to large bodies of water do not have big differences in climate (ie. moderate climate). Places far away from large bodies of water have much bigger changes in their climate throughout the year.

45 Bodies of Water In Summer Land is warm Water is cold
Summer is cool, not hot. In Winter Land is cold Water is warm Winter is mild, not cold.

46 Closeness to Large Bodies of Water


48 During summer, temperature is strongly controlled by elevation -- cold at the higher reaches of the Alaska and Brooks Ranges, and warmer in the lowlands.

49 Water __________ the temperature. _______ summers. _______ winters.
How does closeness to a large body of water affect climate? Water __________ the temperature. _______ summers. _______ winters. moderates Cooler Warmer Cities A & B are located at the same latitude. City B is closer to a large body of water. Its temperature line is flatter (moderated).

50 C. Mountain Barriers In Canada, almost all precipitation falls on the western slopes of large mountain chains. West Side East Side

51 C. Mountain Barriers Prevailing winds, traveling eastward, strike the western slopes first and drop their precipitation there. By the time the winds reach the other side of the mountain (eastern side) they are dry. The eastern side gets little or no precipitation. This effect is called rain shadow.

52 Climographs This graph has one horizontal axis and two vertical axes.
Winterland Temperature( o C) Precipitation (mm) J F M A M J J A S O N D Months of the Year

53 Climograph: Whitehorse
J F M A S O N D Temp ( o C) -18 -14 -7 7 12 14 11 8 -10 -5 Precip (mm) 18 15 30 37 40 35 23

54 Climograph Data: Regina
J F M A S O N D Temp ( o C) -20 -15 -7 10 15 20 18 13 5 -5 -13 Precip (mm) 30 40 75 50

55 Climograph Data: St. John’s
F M A S O N D Temp ( o C) -4 -5 -2 2 6 11 16 18 13 8 4 Precip (mm) 150 130 120 110 100 95 80 125 145

56 Climograph: Iqaluit Mo J F M A S O N D -25 -26 -23 -14 -3 3 8 7 2 -4
Temp ( o C) -25 -26 -23 -14 -3 3 8 7 2 -4 -12 -21 Precip (mm) 18 12 15 30 37 40 35 23

57 Climograph Data: Victoria
J F M A S O N D Temp ( o C) 3 5 6 8 11 14 16 10 7 4 Precip (mm) 140 100 75 45 35 30 20 25 40 150

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