2 What Affects Weather and Climate? There are Global Factors:1. Ocean Currents2. Air Masses and Wind3. Latitude4. Clouds and PrecipitationThere are Regional Factors:Altitude (Elevation)Bodies of WaterMountain Barriers
5 #1 Ocean CurrentsThe world’s oceans are constantly in motion. Tides move the water up and down while currents move the water from place to place.Four ocean currents affect Canadian climate:Two East Coast CurrentsTwo West Coast Currents
6 East Coast Currents They are: A. Labrador Current (cold) B. Gulf Stream Current (warm)
7 West Coast Currents They are: A. Alaska Current (warm) B. North Pacific Current (warm)
8 Current SummaryCanada’s west coast has warmer climate because of the 2 warm currents there.North Pacific (Warm)
14 #2 Air MassesLarge volumes of air with similar temperatures and moisture conditions.They move toward Canada and influence our weather and climate.They are formed in certain places on Earth.Where they form enables us to predict what they will bring.They move as a result of changing pressure conditions. It’s leading edge is called a Front.
15 Canada’s Four Air Masses Canada is affected by 4 air masses:1. Maritime Tropical2. Maritime Polar3. Continental Arctic4. Continental Tropical322411
19 Air Masses and WindThey generally blow eastward across Canada (from B.C. to N.L)Canadian winds follow the direction of the high altitude wind called the jet stream.
20 Jet StreamThe jet stream always flows eastward but changes its position and speed from summer to winter.It moves slower and is found further north in the summer.After air masses arrive inCanada, they move eastwardfollowing the path of the jetstream.
21 #3 LatitudeOne of the most important influences on climate is latitude.How far north or south of the equator a region is influences how warm or cold it will be.Higher latitude locations get less direct sunlight.Sunlight strikes these high altitudes at an angle.Ex. Canada is, on average, colder than the USA.
24 As latitude ________, the average annual temperature _________. How does latitudeaffect climate?As latitude ________, the averageannual temperature _________.increasesdecreasesTemperature0° Latitude °
25 #4 Precipitation Precipitation is a component of climate. When warm air, carrying water vapour, rises, cools, and releases the vapour as precipitation.Warm air is lighter than cold air and holds the most water vapourDepending on the air temperature precipitation could be solid (ex. snow) or liquid (ex. rain).
26 Precipitation (Cont’d) There are THREE general things that can force warm air to rise.They are:A. Fronts of air massesB. ConvectionC. Mountains
27 Air MassesFrontFrontWhen air masses meet at a front, the collision often results in changeable weather, or rainfall.
36 Zone B It is located in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Here the climate is dry.
37 Zone CThis zone is found along the coast of British Columbia (including Vancouver Island).The climate is warm and moist.Vancouver Island has climate like that in southern Europe (Mediterrean)
38 Zone D This is the largest climate zone in Canada – over 70%. The climate is cool and moist.Most of this zone has precipitation throughout the year.The northern part of this zone has very short summers.
39 Zone E It is the second largest climate zone in Canada – about 25%. It’s located in the far north of Canada.Here the climate very cold and dry.
40 Regional FactorsClimate regions may have features which make their weather unique.These features include:A. Altitude (elevation)B. Bodies of WaterC. Mountain Barriers
41 A. Altitude As altitude increases the air temperature decreases. Places withhigher elevationare colder.
43 As elevation _________, the average temperature __________. How does elevationaffect climate?As elevation _________, the averagetemperature __________.increasesdecreasesTemperatureElevation
44 B. Bodies of WaterSummer sunshine heats up land quickly and heats up water slowly..In winter, land cools off quickly but water cools off slowly.Areas close to large bodies of water do not have big differences in climate (ie. moderate climate).Places far away from large bodies of water have much bigger changes in their climate throughout the year.
45 Bodies of Water In Summer Land is warm Water is cold Summer is cool, not hot.In WinterLand is coldWater is warmWinter is mild, not cold.
48 During summer, temperature is strongly controlled by elevation -- cold at the higher reaches of the Alaska and Brooks Ranges, and warmer in the lowlands.
49 Water __________ the temperature. _______ summers. _______ winters. How does closeness to a largebody of water affect climate?Water __________ the temperature._______ summers. _______ winters.moderatesCoolerWarmerCities A & B are locatedat the same latitude.City B is closer to a large body of water.Its temperature line is flatter (moderated).
50 C. Mountain BarriersIn Canada, almost all precipitation falls on the western slopes of large mountain chains.West SideEast Side
51 C. Mountain BarriersPrevailing winds, traveling eastward, strike the western slopes first and drop their precipitation there.By the time the winds reach the other side of the mountain (eastern side) they are dry.The eastern side gets little or no precipitation.This effect is called rain shadow.
52 Climographs This graph has one horizontal axis and two vertical axes. WinterlandTemperature( o C)Precipitation (mm)J F M A M J J A S O N DMonths of the Year
53 Climograph: Whitehorse JFMASONDTemp( o C)-18-14-771214118-10-5Precip(mm)18153037403523
54 Climograph Data: Regina JFMASONDTemp( o C)-20-15-710152018135-5-13Precip(mm)30407550
55 Climograph Data: St. John’s FMASONDTemp( o C)-4-5-2261116181384Precip(mm)1501301201101009580125145
56 Climograph: Iqaluit Mo J F M A S O N D -25 -26 -23 -14 -3 3 8 7 2 -4 Temp( o C)-25-26-23-14-33872-4-12-21Precip(mm)1812153037403523
57 Climograph Data: Victoria JFMASONDTemp( o C)35681114161074Precip(mm)14010075453530202540150