12 Latitude affects climate depending on how close you are to the Equator. The climate is hottest on the Equator.The farther from the Equator you travel (north or south) the colder it will be.The reason for this is that the closer you are to the Equator, the more directly the sun's rays go through the Earth's atmosphere.
17 In other words . . .Since the Earth is curved, the Sun’s rays hitting our planet at a higher latitude are spread out over a greater area.Over the Equator the rays are concentrated in a smaller area.
18 Elementary School Review The Sun’s rays are stronger dependingon its position in the solar system.
47 #1 The boundary between cold, dry polar air and warm, moist tropical air is called the Polar Front. #2 High in the atmosphere above the polar front is a current of fast-moving air called the Polar Front Jet Stream.
55 Relief refers to differences in elevation of the earth’s surface.
56 a) Mountain ranges act as barriers to the movement of air masses a) Mountain ranges act as barriers to the movement of air masses. b) The higher the elevation the lower the temperature. c) As air rises, it expands because there is less air pressure. d) As the air expands, it loses heat.
57 Fig on page 130 in the Making Connections textbook will explain how to calculate changes in temperature of a rising air mass.
59 Are areas far from oceans and large lakes. CONTINENTAL CLIMATESAre areas far from oceans and large lakes.The temperature range is great because there is no large water body to moderate the hot temperatures of summer and the cold temperatures of winter.