Presentation on theme: "What Factors Affect the Climate in Canada"— Presentation transcript:
1 What Factors Affect the Climate in Canada Ms. K. Fawcett
2 There are 6 Factors that affect Climate: They are:LatitudeOcean CurrentsWinds and Air massesElevationReliefNear to WaterA useful acronym to help remember these factors is: LOWER NEAR WATER
3 Latitude and ClimateLatitude: gives the location of a place on earth, north or south of the borderLines of Longitude: horizontal lines running east to west on a mapAs you move away from the equator (either N or S) the average temperature decreases, but the temperature range increase
4 But, because the earth is curved, at certain points this Why?The amount of energy hitting any spoton the earth is equalBut, because the earth iscurved, at certain points thisenergy is spread out over larger distances- low angle of incoming sunlight hits the north and south poles – less direct sunlightSunlight directly hits the equator overheadthe rays are spread out in the poles and more concentrated at the equator
5 Therefore, Temperature decreases as you move north or south of the equator because due to the curvature of the earth, less light from the sun is hitting per square meter.
6 Ocean Currents and Climate An Ocean Current is Continuous, directed movement of ocean water.The temperature of Ocean Currents can increase or reduce the temperature of nearby land areas.Ocean winds blowing towards the shore will increase or decrease in temperature depending on the temperature of the ocean water.EXAMPLE : North Atlantic Gulf StreamTemperature of the current + surrounding water = overall current temperatureCurrent temperature affectsAir Temperature passing over it.West Coast:North Pacific Current = warm- warmer air- warmer BC climateLabrador current meets GulfStream and NFLD = FOG
7 Therefore,Ocean currents affect climate because they influence the temperature of the air coming off the water.
8 Winds and ClimateAir Mass – large volume of air that takes on climate conditionsWind – movement of air from high pressure to low pressure areasPrevailing Wind – well established patterns of windPolar Front – boundary between dry, polar air, and warm, wet tropical airJet Stream –west to east movement of air high above polar frontBecause air masses takes on their climatic conditions,Ocean air masses = lots of moisture and warm/coolLand Air masses = very dry and warm/cool
9 Winds Affect Climate Air moves, High Pressure Low pressure creates patterns called PREVAILING (Dominant) WINDS In Canada, blow west to East(Westerlies)Warm winds blow from hot areas and will raise temperaturesCold winds come from cold areas and decrease the temperature= Move air masses affects and changes weather
10 Jet Stream S of the Jet stream = WARM The east to west movement of the jet stream controls the location of the polar front.N of jetStream = COLDThis can have a MAJOR implications on weather.If the jet stream shifts, there can be large shifts in temperature.S of the Jet stream = WARM
13 Therefore,Winds affects climate by moving air masses that mimic climatic conditions and alter the position of the jet stream.
14 Elevation and Climate Mountain ranges affect climate on both sides Temperatures decrease with Height.Increase in elevation = decrease in temperatureMountain ranges affect climate on both sidesThe air is less dense and cannot hold heat as easily. This is how we have snow and ice at the tops of mountains- As air rises up, it expands andcools ,it will continue till theforming of clouds, then itbecomes saturatedResults in precipitationRain, snow, freezing rain, hail
16 Therefore,Increased elevation causes temperature decreases and precipitation increases
17 Elevation and ClimateThe windward coastal side of the mountain range will receive lots of precipitation as it rises up over the mountain, the air cools and causes it to release the moisture.This is called Orographic PrecipitationThe other side of the mountain range will be in an air called the rain shadow, meaning that this area will not receive any moisture from prevailing winds.No precipitation since it was lost on the other side of the mountain
18 Relief and ClimateMountain barriers create relief precipitation
19 Therefore,The presence of mountains will cause cooler and wetter climates on windward sides and drier and warmer climates on leeward sides
20 Near Water and Climate Land heats and cools faster than water Therefore, coastal areas have a lower temperature range than those that are inland.
21 Near Water and Climate Continental Climate (not close to body of water – Interior locations)large temp. rangehot = summer,cold = winterLow amounts of precipitationMaritime Climate(close to large water bodies – coastal location)Relatively small temperature rangeA lot of precipitationMild winters and cool summers
22 Therefore,The temperature range and amount of precipitation can be influenced by the proximity of the body of water.
23 What Climate Factor(s) Affect the following regions in Canada?