2 Biology What is the difference between fruit and vegetable????? Mature ripened ovary along with its contents and any adhering accessory structure to protect the seed and includes seedsAgamospermy - Unfertilized fruit and therefore solely made up of maternal tissueParthenocarpy – maturation of fruit with out seed formation. Any Example???
3 Fruit Important for food dispersal Many fruits are fleshy and contain sugars that attract animalsPass through digestive system successfullydisperse the tender seeds far away from parent plantNon-fleshy fruits use other mechanism for dispersal
4 Fruit Ovary wall thickens and forms pericarp with three layers Exocarp – outer most layer usually made up of epidermisMesocarp - middle layer; varies in thicknessEndocarp – inner most; shows considerable variationsFruit types:Simple (one ovary one flower), aggregate (many ovaries one flower), multiple (many ovaries many flowers) and accessory (Other tissues surrounding the ovary; usually flowers with inferior ovary)
6 Fruit ChemistryOne of the important constituents of our diet and provides 1/3 of required calories, vitamins and mineralsHas high amount of water (60-90%) and very little fat or proteins.CHO are mainly free sugars (glucose and fructose) form main nutrient componentSome are particularly rich in vitamins and mineralsMany contain tannins and pectins
7 A Nut Entire fruit with hard shell A seed developed in a stony endocarpHigh in nutrientsFat – edible oilProteinsHigh in mineral contentLow in carbohydrates
8 Temperate and Tropical fruits Tropical fruits – form staple dietTemperate fruits – additive fruitsSweet varieties consumed rawAcidic one preserved as jams, jellies, juices and syrups
9 Apples and their relatives Rosaceae with four subfamiliesSpiraeoideae – spireaMaloideae – apples; pome type of fruitAmygdaloideae – plums, drupes type of fruitRosoideae – rose, aggregate type of fruit
10 Apples and their relatives Apples(pome) Malus Xdomesticus or M. asiaticusOld world from EurasiaJohnny Appleseed?? & Adam and Eve (apple or apricot)Diploid or triploid (n=17)Mainly grown by graftingPome, fleshy receptacle; inferior ovary; 9-18% sugars,1% acid, 0.5% tannins and proteins, vit. C; K; Ca; P and pectin
11 Apples and their relatives Pears (pome) Pyrus communis; P. pyrifolia (Asian pear)Second largest temperate fruit cropOriginated in AsiaFleshy receptacle; inferior ovary; pomeGrittyness due to stone cells (cells with very thick wall)Fructose; pectin, thiamine and phosphatides; peel has vit. C an biotin
12 Apples and their relatives Quinces (pome) Cydonia oblongaHard aromatic fleshMore stone cells than pearUsed as a rootstock for pearsMainly made into preserves and conserves
13 Plums and other stones Amygdaloideae Plums (Prunus domestica)Cherries (P. avium; sweet and P.cerasus; sour )Peaches (P. persica)Apricots (P.armeniaca)A drupe; skin is exocarp; fleshy edible part is mesocarp and stony endoccarp with seed inside.Native of central or western ChinaSome are New world – plums and cherries
14 False berries Rosoideae Aggregate fruit Strawberries (Fragaria Xananassa); vit c, 1.5% organic acid; anthocyaninsRaspberries (Rubus idaeus) tocopherolsBlackberries (R. occidentalis) anthocyaninsAggregate fruitStrawberry -Central fleshy receptacle with individual fruits developing from free ovaries; individual fruit is acheneRaspberries and blackberries – receptacle not swollen; each fruit is a fleshy drupe
15 Blueberries and cranberries Ericaceae or Heath family:Blue berries(Vaccinum corymbosum and V. angustifolium)Cranberries (V. macrocarpum and V.oxycoccos)Fleshy indehiscent fruit; Drupe; vit A, C, mallic acid; tannins and anthocyanins
16 Grapes Vitis vinifera – Vitaceae A woody perennial from middle Asia 8000BC.Moved westward to Italy, Germany, France and Spain.175 table varietiesV. labrusca, the fox grape – concord, catawba grapesRaisins are dried grapes
17 KiwiActinidia deliciosa – Actinidiaceae native of Asia, called as Chinese gooseberry.Introduced into New ZealandAgressively marketed, changed the nameDioceous plant therefore
18 Temperate NutsNuts are kind of dry fruit with single seed, hard pericarp, and a husklike involucre partially enclosing the fruitChestnut; hazelnut; pecans; and walnut.Peanut, Almond??Most have wind pollinated flowers
19 Pecans and Walnuts Juglandaceae: Rosaceae Persian walnut – J. regia; Southeastern Europe and AsiaBlack walnut – J.nigra; N. AmericaAllelopaticPecans, Hicokery and butternut – CaryaRosaceaeAlmonds –Prunus dulcisPistachio – Pistaceae vera
21 CitrusTrees with evergreen leaves, cultivated plants originated in SE Asia.Some researchers feel that all cultivated citrus came from 3 original species.Citrus easily to produce hybrids so this adds to the confusion.Fruit is an hesperidium which is a berryExocarp and mesocarp - a tough skin. The skin has cavities filled with aromatic oils.Endocarp - edible part with hairs modified into juice sacs.cannot tolerate freezing temperatures, require soil moisture, sun and dry air.Bud grafting is most common method of propagation.
22 CitrusSweet orange - Citrus sinensis - most widely grown, possibly of hybrid origin.Lemon - Citrus lemon - used for flavoring, deodorantsBitter orange - C. aurantium - preserves, marmalade, liquersLime - C. aurantriifolia - juice used to prevent scurvy, LimeysGrapefruits - C. paradisi - possibly a cross between pumello (C. maxima) and C. sinensis, probably in W. Indies. Pink grapefruits arose as a bud mutation.Tangerine - C. reticulata - probably a biological species and not a hybrid.
23 Squashes Citrullus lanatus- watermelon, from Africa CucurbitaceaeFruit is a pepo which is an accessory fruit produced from an inferior ovary, the skin or rind is composed of ovary wall and perianth.Edible squash dates from 6000 ybp in Peru but it was probably used earlier since edible members of this family would have been collected by hunter-gatherers.Most squashes are annuals, vines and dioecious,Cucurbita, taxonomy is very confusedCucurbita pepo - pumpkins, zucchini, summer squashesCitrullus lanatus- watermelon, from AfricaCucumis melo - cantaloupe, musk and honeydew melons, probably from AfricaCucumis sativus - cucumber, from S. Asia
24 Tomatoes and Peppers Solanaceae Fruit is a berry. Tomato - Lycopersicon esculentumscientific name means juicy wolf peach.native to E. Mexico, tomatoes were thought to be an aphrodisiac by French,used to evoke wolves by Germans, Rumors of toxic nature of tomatoes persisted until Tomatoes were not important until processing industry developed to produce canned and bottled products - juice, whole tomatoes, paste, catsup.Plants are outbreeding perennials, selection has been for self-pollination.Cherry tomatoes are closer to wild types than large-fruited cultivars.Sweet peppers - Capsicum annuum - from Mexico, 8000 ybp.
25 PalmsCoconut: Cocos nucifera - monocot, very imporant plant in tropics, used for oil, fiber, food and drink.Origin is controversial since coconuts can be dispersed by ocean currents.Coconuts are monecious, mature fruit contains one seed which is the largest one known.Green coconuts have liquid endosperm which solidifies to form the "meat". The coconut "apple" is the base of the developing embryo and can also be eaten.Date palm - Phoenix dactyliferafound in arid regions around Meditteranean, domesticated for 6500 years.Dates contain large amounts of carbohydrates, "Tree of life" to Bedouins.
27 Tropical Fruits Pineapple - Ananas comosus a multiple fruit formed by fused ovaries.Fruits develop without pollination - parthenocarpic Hawaii is currently world's largest producer of pineapples due to efforts of J. P. Dole.pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme and therefore don't put fresh or frozen pineapple in jello, gelatin is an animal protein and it will not setBananas - Musa paradisica-Fruit is a berryorigin is obscured by hybridization and polyploids, selection for seedlessness.Adult plants are giant herbs. Flowers are monoecious, fruit is an accessory type formed from an inferior ovary. Main obstacle to commercial development of bananas was control of spoilage, which was done around 1930.Breadfruit and Jackfruit - ArtocarpusNative to Polynesia, tree that produces multiple fruits.The mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty occurred during an excursion to collect breadfruits.
28 Tropical Fruits Avocados - Persea americana Have high oil content, known only as a cultivated species from at least 9000 ybp in New World.Was made popular by denying it was an aphrodisiac in 1920's.Mangoes - Mangifera indicaFrom SE Asia, important food source for poor of Jamaica and Haiti and can also be found in U.S. supermarkets.Pomegranates - Punica granatumsource of word for grenade since fruits will shatter and scatter seeds when thrown down.
29 Tropical nuts Cashews – Anacardium occidentale. The "nuts" are seeds, member of same family as poison ivy.Latex in seed coat is irritating.Macadamia – Macadamia integrifolia sweet, buttery expensive nut grown mainly in Hawaii