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Fruits Classification, nutrients, purchasing, preparing and storing.

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1 Fruits Classification, nutrients, purchasing, preparing and storing

2 What are fruits In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary—together with seeds—of a flowering plant. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate seeds In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary—together with seeds—of a flowering plant. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate seedsbotanyripenedovary seedsflowering plantbotanyripenedovary seedsflowering plant In cuisine, when discussing fruit as food, the term usually refers to those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy, examples of which include plums, apples and oranges. However, a great many common vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are the fruit of that plant species. In cuisine, when discussing fruit as food, the term usually refers to those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy, examples of which include plums, apples and oranges. However, a great many common vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are the fruit of that plant species.cuisinefoodplantplumsapples orangesvegetablesnutsgrainscuisinefoodplantplumsapples orangesvegetablesnutsgrains Fruits are classified into six categories depending on their physical characteristics: berries, drupes, pomes. Citrus, melons and tropical. Fruits are classified into six categories depending on their physical characteristics: berries, drupes, pomes. Citrus, melons and tropical.

3 BERRIES small juicy fruits with thin skins and lots of tiny pits – includes strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, grapes, cranberries and blackcurrants. Except for cranberries, all are highly perishable. Soften with freezing, but make very good jams, jellies and preserves. small juicy fruits with thin skins and lots of tiny pits – includes strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, grapes, cranberries and blackcurrants. Except for cranberries, all are highly perishable. Soften with freezing, but make very good jams, jellies and preserves.

4 DRUPES Outer skin covering a soft, fleshy fruit with a single, large seed, called a pit or stone. Include cherries, peaches, apricots and plums. Outer skin covering a soft, fleshy fruit with a single, large seed, called a pit or stone. Include cherries, peaches, apricots and plums.

5 POMES Central, seed containing core, with many seeds and thick layer of fibrous flesh. Include apples, pears. Central, seed containing core, with many seeds and thick layer of fibrous flesh. Include apples, pears.

6 CITRUS FRUIT Thick, bitter outer rind with soft layer of pith. Flesh separates into segments of sections. Includes oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, tangerines etc. Thick, bitter outer rind with soft layer of pith. Flesh separates into segments of sections. Includes oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, tangerines etc.

7 MELONS Large, juicy fruit with thick rinds and many seeds in the center. Include watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew, casaba. Large, juicy fruit with thick rinds and many seeds in the center. Include watermelon, cantaloupe, honeydew, casaba.

8 TROPICAL FRUITS Grow in warm climates and are often considered exotic. Include pineapples, mangoes, papaya, kiwi, coconut, bananas, dragonfruit Grow in warm climates and are often considered exotic. Include pineapples, mangoes, papaya, kiwi, coconut, bananas, dragonfruit

9 Nutritional Value Two to Four servings each day Two to Four servings each day Serving size is one medium size piece, ½ cup chopped fruit and ¾ cup fruit juice Serving size is one medium size piece, ½ cup chopped fruit and ¾ cup fruit juice Citrus fruits provide high amounts of Vitamin C and prevent scurvy (limies) Citrus fruits provide high amounts of Vitamin C and prevent scurvy (limies) Orange fruits (melons, apricots, peaches) contain large quantities of beta carotene (Vitamin A) Orange fruits (melons, apricots, peaches) contain large quantities of beta carotene (Vitamin A) Significant source of fiber Significant source of fiber Contribute phytochemicals (antioxidants) Contribute phytochemicals (antioxidants)

10 Available Forms Canned – watch for added sugars and syrups, also pick cans with NO dents or bulges Canned – watch for added sugars and syrups, also pick cans with NO dents or bulges Frozen – can soften and destroy texture of fruit, can be sweetened or unsweetened Frozen – can soften and destroy texture of fruit, can be sweetened or unsweetened Dried – Most fruits are available in dried form. Can be packaged or sold loose. Watch for use of sulfur in processing, can cause allergies and mar flavor Dried – Most fruits are available in dried form. Can be packaged or sold loose. Watch for use of sulfur in processing, can cause allergies and mar flavor

11 Preparing fruit Enzymatic browning – many fruits exposed to air will turn brown (ex: bananas, apples). Using lemon juice or acidulated water will help prevent this. Enzymatic browning – many fruits exposed to air will turn brown (ex: bananas, apples). Using lemon juice or acidulated water will help prevent this. Fruits should be carefully washed before use, especially in foreign countries. Fruits should be carefully washed before use, especially in foreign countries. Peel or pare fruit to remove as little of flesh as possible, or wash well and eat the skin (extra fiber). Peel or pare fruit to remove as little of flesh as possible, or wash well and eat the skin (extra fiber).

12 Methods of cooking Cooking in liquid – ex: apple sauce, poached pears Cooking in liquid – ex: apple sauce, poached pears Baking – ex: baked bananas, apples Baking – ex: baked bananas, apples Broiling – bananas, grapefruit, pineapple Broiling – bananas, grapefruit, pineapple Frying – apples, bananas Frying – apples, bananas Microwaving – choose pieces of similar size to prevent overcooking. Remember food continues cooking (standing time) Microwaving – choose pieces of similar size to prevent overcooking. Remember food continues cooking (standing time)

13 Purchasing and Storing Buy fresh fruit, locally grown, in season Buy fresh fruit, locally grown, in season Fruit spoils rapidly, use quickly. Fruit spoils rapidly, use quickly. Ripen drupes (apricots, peaches, avocado) in brown paper bags Ripen drupes (apricots, peaches, avocado) in brown paper bags Refrigeration slows down spoilage Refrigeration slows down spoilage Check for bruises, cuts, mold and softness Check for bruises, cuts, mold and softness Buy in small quantities, just what you need Buy in small quantities, just what you need Smell fruit, should be fragrant. Feel it’s weight, ripe fruit feels “heavy”. Check color – green can indicate underripeness. Some fruits will be soft to the touch Smell fruit, should be fragrant. Feel it’s weight, ripe fruit feels “heavy”. Check color – green can indicate underripeness. Some fruits will be soft to the touch

14 Fruits you may not know cherimoya dragonfruit mangosteen Rambutanlychee Carambola (starfruit)


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