1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Module 2.
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1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Module 2
2 Impression of Psychology Hoping to satisfy curiosity, many people listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to know about others and themselves. Dr. Crane (radio-shrink) http://www.nbc.com http://www.photovault.com Psychic (Ball gazing)
3 Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. We tend to believe, after learning about an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. Hindsight Bias
4 Overconfidence We tend to think we know more than we actually do. Anagram BARGEGRABE ENTRYETYRN WATERWREAT How long do you think would it take to unscramble these anagrams? People said about 10 seconds. On average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978).
5 Scientific Method Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.
6 Theory is an explanation that integrates principles, organizes and predicts behaviors or events. For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression. Theory
7 Hypothesis is a testable prediction, often induced by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed. Hypothesis
8 Research - Individuals who score low on self-esteem measures and high on depression tests, would confirm our hypothesis. Research Observations
11 Psychology and the Scientific Method Scientific method - system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced. Steps in the Scientific Method: 1.Conceptualize the question. 2.Gather data 3.Form a theory and then a specific hypothesis – prediction of a phenomenon based on observations. 4.Test the hypothesis. 5.Draw conclusions. 6.Report your results so that others can try to replicate Psychology is a science; steps in scientific method
12 Operational definition Replicate the “Mozart effect.” –Based the results of a single study, researchers claimed that listening to classical music could improve cognitive functioning. –Several other studies have failed to replicate
13 FAQ Q5. Is it ethical to experiment on animals? Q6. Is it ethical to experiment on people?
14 FAQ Q6. Is it ethical to experiment on people?