3Impression of Psychology With hopes of satisfying curiosity, many people listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to learn about others and themselves.Dr. Crane (radio-shrink)Psychic (Ball gazing)
4Why Do Psychology?How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions?The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do!
5Limits of Human Intuition and Overconfidence Activity Math ProblemOverconfidence Activity
6ACTIVITY Need ten volunteers You will be instructed to lie or tell the truth. Be sure your response is detailed and believable.Determine if the student is lying or telling the truth. Rate your degree of confidence50% = fifty-fifty chance100% = absolutely certain
7OverconfidenceSometimes we think we know more than we actually know.AnagramHow long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams?WREATWATERETYRNENTRYPeople said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978).GRABEBARGEPsychology 7e in Modules
8What About Intuition & Common Sense? Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature.Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error.Preview Question 5: Why are the answers that flow from the scientific approach more reliable than those based on intuition and common sense?Psychology 7e in Modules
9Limits of IntuitionPersonal interviewers may rely too much on their “gut feelings” when meeting with job applicants.Taxi/ Getty Images
11Hindsight Bias Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the stock market would plummet after it actually did plummet.Video: Understanding Research“Anything seems commonplace, once explained.” Dr. Watson to Sherlock Holmes.Two phenomena – hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence – illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense.Psychology 7e in Modules
12The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).Preview Question 6: What attitudes characterize scientific inquiry?Psychology 7e in Modules
13Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.Courtesy of the James Randi Education FoundationThe Amazing Randi
14How Do Psychologists Ask & Answer Questions? Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.Preview Question 7: How do psychologists use the scientific method to construct theories?Psychology 7e in Modules
15For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression. TheoryA theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events.For example, low self-esteem contributes to depression.If we were to observe that depressed people talk about their past, present, and future in a gloomy manner, we may theorize that low-self-esteem contributes to depression.Psychology 7e in Modules
16HypothesisA hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.People with low self-esteem are apt to feel more depressed.(not an educated guess)
17Research Observations Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression. Individuals who score low on a self-esteem test and high on a depression test would confirm our hypothesis.
19OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Operational definitions reduce experimenter bias and allow for replication (repeating results)An operational definition of a variable is observable and measurable. How could self-esteem be observed and measured?Activity: operationally define the underlined term.
20Does this drug help people overcome tiredness? Operational Definitions:The teacher wants to find a way to help make Billy act more friendly toward other children.A psychologist wants to know if the new form of psychotherapy will make people less depressed.Does this drug help people overcome tiredness?Boys show more affection for their fathers than their mothers.People dream more if they have a big meal before going to sleep.6. College athletes are not as smart as regular students.
21ADDITIONAL PRACTICE OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Remember, you need to be able to observe and measure the variable:HappinessFearConscientiousness
22Is language uniquely human? DescriptionCase StudyA technique in which one person, group, or situation is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.Preview Question 8: How do psychologists observe and describe behavior?Susan Kuklin/ Photo ResearchersIs language uniquely human?Psychology 7e in Modules
23CASE STUDY Often used in clinical work. Can include tests, interviews, analysis of letters, or transcripts.Example: Phineas Gage
24SurveyA technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people.Psychology 7e in Modules
25Survey Random Sampling If each member of a population (the larger group the hypothesis applies to) has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). It will be representative of the population. If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid.The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
27Wording can change the results of a survey. Wording EffectsWording can change the results of a survey.Q: Should cigarette ads and pornography not be allowed on television? (not allowed vs. forbid)
28WORDING EFFECTSWomen with young children should be able to work outside the home.8 in 10 Americans agreed
29WORDING EFFECTSWomen should stay at home if they have young preschool children.7 in 10 Americans agreed
30SURVEYPeople may be reluctant to admit undesirable or embarrassing things about themselvesOr they may say what they think they should say.Examples?
31FALSE CONSENSUS EFFECT A tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.Example?
32Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunch room constitute naturalistic observation.Courtesy of Gilda MorelliPsychology 7e in Modules
34NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION What problems did you encounter while doing the naturalistic observation?What were the advantages of doing this type of research?How would you describe your results?What can we conclude from the data?Can we assume causation from this data? Why or why not?
35Descriptive Methods Summary Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation describe behaviors. They are correlational types of research rather than experimental.
36CORRELATION Correlation shows a relationship between variables. It is measured by the correlation coefficient.The extent to which two factors vary together determines how well either factor predicts the other
37(positive or negative) CorrelationWhen one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.Indicates strengthof relationship(0.00 to 1.00)Correlationcoefficientr =+0.37Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.Indicates directionof relationship(positive or negative)Psychology 7e in Modules
38CORRELATIONPositive correlation: a direct relationship; two variables increase or decrease togetherNegative correlation: an inverse relationship; as one thing increases, the other decreases.It would be very rare in Psychology to have a perfect (1.00) correlation
40Guys – if you want keep your hair, don’t get married Among men, the number of years they are married positively correlates to baldnessSo… marriage causes baldness in men, right?
41Correlation does not mean causation!!! Preview Question 9: Why do correlations permit prediction but not explanation?Psychology 7e in Modules
42Correlation Practice Which relationship is stronger? Complete PsychSim Activity
43Disconfirming evidence Illusory CorrelationThe perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists. When we believe there is a relationship we are likely to notice and recall instances that confirm our belief. Parents conceive children after adoption.Confirming evidenceDisconfirming evidenceDo notadoptAdoptDo not conceiveConceivePreview Question 10: How accurately does the naked eye detect correlations?Michael Newman Jr./ Photo EditPsychology 7e in Modules
44Given random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns. Order in Random EventsGiven random data, we look for order and meaningful patterns.Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.Psychology 7e in Modules
45Order in Random EventsGiven large numbers of random outcomes, a few are likely to express order.Jerry Telfer/ San Francisco ChronicleAngelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day.Psychology 7e in Modules
46Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects.Reaction Time ExperimentPreview Question 11: How do experiments clarify or reveal cause-effect relationships?Psychology 7e in Modules
47Exploring Cause & Effect Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments (1) manipulate factors that interest us, while other factors are kept under (2) control.Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships.
48Independent VariableAn independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study.For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable.Psychology 7e in Modules
49Dependent VariableA dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process.For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable.
51INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES What (IV) affects what (DV)?Practice exercises.
52CONTROLING OTHER VARIABLES An experiment has at least two different conditions: control condition experimental condition Random assignment of subjects between conditions equates the conditions (basketball example)
53CONFOUNDING AND RANDOM VARIABLES Confounding (uncontrolled factors that might have affected the dependent variable and confused interpretation of the experimental data) Random variables (uncontrolled factors such as differences in subjects' backgrounds, personalities, health, and so on that might confound research results)These need to be eliminated when possible. Why?Random assignment is presumed to distribute impact of uncontrolled variables randomly and probably equally across groups.
54OTHER METHODS OF CONTROL Eliminating order effectsMatching conditions to eliminate confounding variablesDouble blindEliminate experimenter biasExperimenter expectanciesConfirmation bias
55= Population EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Random Sampling (aka Random Selection)PopulationEveryone has equal chance.This is the goal!Representative Sample (larger the better)Apply Methods of controlApply methods of controlExperimental GroupRandom AssignmentControl Group=Independent VariablePlaceboMeasure Dependent VariableMeasure Dependent VariableIs the difference statistically significant?
56EXPERIMENTATIONPopulation (group you are generalizing your hypothesis to)Random sample from the populationRandom sample creates a representative sample rather than a biased sampleRandom assignment of subjects to experimental group or control group
57EXPERIMENTATION Experimental group gets the independent variable Control group gets the placeboBe sure all measures of control are in place so the only thing influencing the results (dependent variable) is the independent variable
58EXPERIMENTATIONMeasure the dependent variable (you can do this because of operational definitions)Compare the results between the experimental group and the control group using inferential statistics.Is there a statistically significant difference (greater than 1 in 20 = .05)?If so, you have established a causal relationship.
59ETHICAL PRINCIPLESEstablished by the American Psychological AssociationObtain informed consent of potential participantsProtect subjects from harm and discomfortTreat information about subjects confidentiallyFully explain the research afterward (debrief)Institutional Review Boards should screen research proposals
61Complete Practice Exams in Study Guide Chapter One, Answers begin p. 20Progress Test One, p. 8 , #’s 1-20Progress Test Two, p. 11, #’s 1 -20Thinking Critically , p. 13 #’s 1-20Chapter Twelve, Answers begin p. 361Progress Test One, p. 348, # 2-6, 15, and Matching ItemsProgress Test Two, p. 350, # 2, 7, 10 and Matching ItemsThinking Critically, p. 353, #’s 1-5, 7-8, 11
62Below is a comparison of different research methods.
63Q1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life? FAQQ1. Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?Ans: Artificial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms. The goal is to find underlying principles that govern behavior.Preview Question 12: Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?Psychology 7e in Modules
64Q2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender? FAQQ2. Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?Ans: Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same. Biology determines our sex, and culture further bends the genders. However, in many ways woman and man are similarly human.Preview Question 13: Does behavior depend on one’s culture and gender?Ami Vitale/ Getty ImagesPsychology 7e in Modules
66Q4. Is it ethical to experiment on people? FAQQ4. Is it ethical to experiment on people?Ans: Yes. Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm beyond normal levels encountered in daily life may be carried out.Preview Question 15: Is it ethical to experiment on people?Psychology 7e in Modules
68Q6. Is psychology potentially dangerous? FAQQ6. Is psychology potentially dangerous?Ans: It can be, but it is not. The purpose of psychology is to help humanity with problems such as war, hunger, prejudice, crime, family dysfunction, etc.Preview Question 17: Is psychology potentially dangerous?Psychology 7e in Modules
69Tips for Studying Psychology Psychology can teach you how to ask and answer important questions.Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse and Review (SQ3R)Survey: What you are about to read, including chapter outlines and section heads.Question: Ask questions. Make notes.Read: Look for the answer to your questions by reading a manageable amount at a time.Rehearse: Recall what you’ve read in your own words. Test yourself with quizzes.Review: What you learn. Read over notes and quickly review the whole chapter.Preview Question 18: How can psychological principles help you as a student?Psychology 7e in Modules
70Tips for Studying Psychology Additional Study HintsDistribute your time.Learn to think critically.Listen actively in class.Overlearn.Be a smart test-taker.
71Overconfidence Activity 1)I feel 98 percent certain that the area of the U.S. is more than ____ square miles but less than ____ square miles.2)I feel 98 percent certain that in 2010 the population of the US was more than ___ but less than ____.3)I feel 98 percent certain that the number of dogs in America is more than ___ but less than ___.
72Overconfidence Activity 4)I feel 98 percent certain that in 2012 the number of female engineers in the United States was more than ___ % of all engineers but less than ___%.5)I feel 98 percent certain that in 2011 the number of Starbucks in the US was more than___ but less than ___.