2 Religious FreedomThe next wave of colonist would be seeking Religious Freedom.RECAP: England is a Protestant Nation thanks to King Henry the VIII since 1534 forming the Anglican Church.Not everyone was happy with the change in religion.Many people dissented (disagree with the practice and belief of) the Anglican Church.Still considered the pop the head of the church and were often persecuted (treated harshly) as a result.
3 Religious FreedomSome Protestants wanted to reform the church while others wanted to leave altogether.Puritans – Protestant who wanted to reform the Anglican Church.Separatists –Those who wanted to leave and set up their own churches.The separatists were persecuted in England and fled to the Netherlands.Found religious freedom there but did not have jobs.Also worried their children would lose their English heritage (way of life).
4 The Pilgrim’s JourneySome Separatists in the Netherland made an arrangement with the Virginia Company.If they were allowed to settle in Virginia and practice their religion freely, they would give the company a share of any profits made.These Separatists considered themselves Pilgrims because their journey had a religious purpose.Only 35 out of 102 passengers who boarded the Mayflower in September of 1620 were Pilgrims.The rest were called “strangers” (How Polite!) and consisted of common people such as servants, craftspeople, and poor farmers.They all hoped to find a better life in the Americas.
5 The Mayflower CompactThe Pilgrims had planned to settle in the Virginia colony.They landed much further north at Cape Cod.It was November and winter was coming, so they decided to drop anchor at Cape Cod Bay.William Bradford was their leader and historian.Before they went ashore they drafted a formal document known as the Mayflower Compact where they:Pledged loyalty to England.Formed “a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation.”Agreed to obey laws passed “for the general good of the colony.”This was a necessary step for in the development of representative government in America.
6 Help From the Native Americans Half the pilgrims died of malnutrition, disease, and cold during their first winter.In the Spring, Squanto and Samoset befriended the colonists.Squanto was a Pawtuxet and was kidnapped to Europe where he learned English.Showed the colonists how to grow corn, beans, and pumpkins.Also showed them how to hunt and fish.It was almost assured that without their help the pilgrims would not have survived.
7 Help From the Native Americans Squanto and Samoset also helped create a treaty with the Wampanoag people.Massasoit, a Wampanoag leader, signed a treaty with the Pilgrims in March 1621.Later in the autumn of that same year they would have a feast thanking God for surviving with the Wampanoag (READ: Thanksgiving).50 Men, Women, Children, and 90 Wampanoag.Ate wild fowl (Duck and Turkey) and dear.Singing, dancing, and the Wampanoag showed off their skill with the bow and arrow.
9 New Settlements In 1625 the English throne passed to Charles I. He objected to the reform on the Anglican Church and began persecuting the Puritans again.Once again, the Puritans looked for a way to leave England.In 1629, a group of Puritans formed the Massachusetts Bay Company and received a royal charter to establish a colony north of Plymouth.It gave them the opportunity to set up a new society based on the Bible.The Colony chose John Winthrop to be the colony’s governor since he was well educated.
10 New SettlementsIn 1630, Winthrop led 900 men, women and children to Massachusetts Bay.They would end up settling in a place they called Boston.King Charles IJohn Winthrop
11 Growth and GovernmentDuring the 1630’s, more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution.This movement became known as the Great Migration.At first John Winthrop and his assistance made up the colonies laws.Chosen by the General Court (made up of the colony’s stockholders.In 1634, colonists demanded a larger role in government.The general court became an elected assembly.
12 Growth and GovernmentAdult male church members were allowed to vote for the governor and for their town’s representatives to the General Court.Later on they would also have to own property to vote.Even though the Puritans had left England for religious beliefs, they had little tolerance for other religious views.This led to the creation of new colonies.
13 Connecticut and Rhode Island The Connecticut River valley was much better off for farming than Boston.Boston had very stony soil making it hard to farm.Thomas Hooker – became dissatisfied with Massachusetts.Did not like the way Winthrop ran the colony.Led people through the wilderness to Connecticut where they founded Hartford.Three years later Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield, agreed to form a colony.
14 Connecticut and Rhode Island Adopted a plan of government known as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.First written Constitution in America.Detailed a Representative Government.Meanwhile, Rhode Island was being settled by colonists who were forced out of Massachusetts.Roger Williams – First of the people kicked out of Massachusetts.Minister who felt that people should not be persecuted for their religious practices.Believed the government should not force people to worship in a certain way.Did not agree with taking land away from the Native Americans.
15 Connecticut and Rhode Island it was because of these views that he was banished in 1635.He moved in with the Narraganset people.They eventually sold him land, and he founded the town of Providence.He would eventually receive a charter in 1644 for a colony east of Connecticut called Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.With its policy on religious toleration it became a safe place for dissenters.First place in America where people of all faiths worshipped freely.
16 Connecticut and Rhode Island Other would follow in Williams example.John Wheelwright – Led a group of dissidents from Massachusetts to the north in 1638 to set up the town of Exeter, New Hampshire.Another group of Colonist did the same and settled the town of Hampton.The Colony of New Hampshire became independent of Massachusetts in 1679.
17 Conflict With the Natives For a short time, the Colonists and the Native Americans got along fine.Exchanged furs for iron pots, blankets, and guns.Virginia dealt mostly with the Powhatan Confederacy.New England interacted with the Wampanoag, Narragansett, and other groups.Conflict would arise howeverColonists would move onto Native American land without payment or permission.Colonists and Natives would end up competing fiercely for the land.
18 Conflict With the Natives In 1636, war broke out between settlers and the Pequot people.Two traders were killed in their territory and Massachusetts sent troops in retaliation to punish the Pequot.The Pequot than attacked a Connecticut town killing 9 people.In May 1637, troops from Connecticut attacked the main fort of the Pequot with assistance from the Narraganset.The fort was burned killing hundreds.
19 Conflict With the Natives In 1675, New England went to war against the Wampanoag people and their allies.Metacomet, was known to the settlers as King Philip.He had hoped to stop Colonists from moving onto Native American lands.The War began after three Wampanoag's were executed for murder.He attacked towns across the region, killing hundreds of people.The settlers and their Native American allies fought back.King Philip’s War, as the conflict was called, ended in the defeat of the Wampanoag and their allies destroying the power of the Natives allowing the colonists to expand.
20 John WheelwrightThomas HookerRoger WilliamsMetacomet