3 What is Government?Government is the institution where a society makes and enforces public policies.Public Policies are all of the things a government decides to do.Taxes, Defense, Education, Crime, Healthcare, Transportation, Environment, Civil Rights, Working Conditions…Gov’t must have the power to carry out public policies.
4 3 Basic Gov’t Powers Legislative Power Executive Power Judicial Power Legislative PowerThe power to make laws and to frame public policies.Congress (Senate & House)Executive PowerThe power to execute, enforce, and administer laws.PresidentJudicial PowerThe power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes that arise within the society.Supreme Court and Lower Courts
5 Who Gets the Power? Dictatorship Democracy Power held by a single person or small group.DemocracyPower rests with the majority of the people.USA! USA! USA!
6 The State Population Territory Sovereignty Government State The dominant political unit in the world.Body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and with the power to make and enforce law w/o the consent of any higher authority.State is a legal entity, nation is an ethnic term, country is a geographic termPopulationPeople of the state; May or may not be homogenous.TerritoryState’s need land w/ known boundaries.SovereigntyEvery state is sovereign = power is in it’s own hands.GovernmentEvery state is politically organized; Has a government.Without government “chaos”.
7 Origin of the StateFour theories try to explain why states came into being.The Force TheoryOne person/Small Group claimed control over an area and forced all within it to submit to their rule.The Evolutionary TheoryState developed naturally; Primitive family where one person was head of the “government” and evolved into a network of related families; Once agriculture was developed and people were tied to the land the state was born.The Divine Right TheoryGod created the state and God had given royal a “divine right” to rule.The Social Contract TheoryThe state exists to serve the will of the people; They can choose to give or withhold power.People give up some of their freedoms to a government in exchange for safety.
8 Pause for “GroupWork”Which theory of the state is most logical?
9 Purpose of Government?You can find the purpose of government in the Constitution of the United States:
10 Purpose of Gov’t Form a More Perfect Union Establish Justice Strength is in the union of the states.Establish JusticeTJ believed that providing justice is the most sacred duty of the gov’t; Law must be reasonable, fair, and impartial.Insure Domestic TranquilityPeace at home is essential to the well-being of society.Provide for the Common DefenseDefending the nation against enemies is major responsibility of gov’t.Promote the General WelfareGov’t provides services that benefit all or most people.Secure the Blessings of LibertyFreedom; People must be willing to protect our rights and liberties.
11 Review Every state must have ___________________ a. a homogeneous population.b. a constitution.c. territory with recognized boundaries.d. a legislature.Which theory holds that God created the state and made it sovereign?a. divine right theoryb. social contract theoryc. evolutionary theoryd. force theory“The law must be reasonable, fair and impartial.” This is a definition of the concept ofa. the common defense.b. domestic tranquility.c. the general welfare.d. justice.A state differs from a nation in thata. nations need territory, but states do not.b. a state is a legal entity.c. states are always formed by force.d. the word state refers to races or other groups of people.