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Child Development Laura E. Berk 7th edition

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development Laura E. Berk 7th edition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development Laura E. Berk 7th edition
Chapter 9 Language Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

2 Components of Language
Phonology Rules about structure and sequence of speech sounds Semantics Vocabulary - words and word combinations for concepts Grammar Syntax - rules for sentences Morphology - grammatical markers Pragmatics Appropriate and effective communication © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

3 Three Theories of Language Development
Behaviorist Learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation Nativist Language Acquisition Device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language through universal grammar Interactionist Inner capacities and environment work together; Social context is important © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

4 Support for Biological Language Preparedness
Animal language Language seems to be unique to humans Brain structures Regions predisposed to language processing Sensitive period During brain lateralization © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

5 Deaf Children’s Language
Deaf children develop language even when they have: Minimal input Later than hearing children, but do develop Homesign Inconsistent input Extract rules Figure Simon’s performance on a challenging ASL grammatical task, compared with the performance of his parents and native-signing children and adults. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

6 Language Areas of the Brain
Figure Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

7 Interactionist Theories of Language Development
Information-Processing Theories Statistical learning theory Brain studies Social Interactionist Theories Native desire for understanding combines with rich language environment © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

8 Getting Ready to Talk: Receptivity to Language
Newborns sensitive to speech Especially mother’s Categorical speech perception Ability to distinguish phonemes Statistical analysis, rule-learning Child-directed speech © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

9 First Speech Sounds Cooing - 2 months Babbling - 4 months Vowel sounds
Consonants & vowels Universal timing Range expands © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

10 Becoming a Communicator
Joint attention Give-and-take Preverbal gestures Protodeclarative Protoimperative Word-gesture combinations © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

11 Parental Responsiveness and Language Learning
Figure Relationship of maternal responsiveness at 13 months to attainment of language milestones at 21 months. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

12 Phonological Development
Early Phase First words - can only pronounce few sounds Related to semantic development Understand more than can say Phonological Strategies Later development Refine syllable stress patterns - related to meaning © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

13 One-Year-Olds Know Pronunciations
Figure One-year-olds know the correct pronunciation of familiar words. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

14 Phonological Progress
Minimal Words Add ending consonant Adjust vowel length Add unstressed syllables Produce full word, correct stress pattern May still need to refine sounds © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

15 Early Semantic Development
Comprehension before production 5 month lag First words linked to cognition, emotion Vocabulary spurt 18-24 months Fast-mapping © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

16 Individual Differences in Language Development
Gender Temperament Language environment Language Style Referential Expressive © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

17 Types of Early Words More objects than actions Object and Action
Objects are easier concepts, parents rarely name verbs Influenced by culture & language State Modifiers or labels for attributes - size, color, possession Learn general distinctions before specific © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

18 Preschoolers’ Semantic Development
Underextensions Overextensions Word coinages Metaphors © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

19 Elementary School-Age Semantic Development
Big vocabulary increase Fast-mapping continues Analyze word structure Use words precisely, understand multiple meanings - metaphors, puns Figure Estimated vocabulary from grades 1 to 5. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

20 Adolescent Semantic Development
Abstract terms Sarcasm, irony Figurative language Proverbs Figure Estimated vocabulary from grades 1 to 5 © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

21 Factors Contributing to Semantic Development
Adult feedback Cognitive processing Working memory - phonological store Strategies Lexical contrast Mutual exclusivity bias Syntactic bootstrapping Social information © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

22 Early Grammatical Development
Telegraphic speech 2-word combinations Simple sentences 3 words Follow adult rules piecemeal, gradually refine and generalize Figure Number of word combinations with novel nouns and verbs produced by 18- to 23-month-olds © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

23 Development of Grammatical Morphemes
Structural complexity affects order acquired Overregulation Applying rules without appropriate exceptions © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

24 Complex Grammatical Forms
Negatives Nonexistence Rejection Denial Questions Rising intonations Subject-verb inversion Correct yes-no questions precede wh- questions Other Complex Constructions Connectives Embedded sentences Tag questions Indirect object-direct object Passive sentences © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

25 Views on Grammar Development
Product of cognitive development Semantic bootstrapping Direct observation of language structure Inborn capacities Categories for bootstrapping Language-making capacity Environmental support Adults correct indirectly with reformulations Asking for clarification Recasts Expansions © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

26 Pragmatic Development
2-year-olds can have effective conversations Early childhood - turnabout Middle childhood Shading Illocutionary knowledge © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

27 Factors that Enhance Pragmatic Development
Adult interactions Conversations Dialogues about storybooks, shared reading Siblings © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

28 Testing Referential Communication Skills
Figure Scene used to test for referential communication skills. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

29 Development of Narrative Skills
Leapfrog narratives - 4 years Few evaluations Chronological narratives - 4-1/2 to 5 years Classical narratives - 6 years Narrative styles learned from adults Topic-associating style Haiku style © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

30 Speech Registers Social routines Polite language
Children sensitive to speech registers early years Important to social acceptance © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

31 Metalinguistic Awareness
Ability to think about language as a system 4- and 5-year-olds have early understanding Flowers in middle childhood Phonological awareness associated with reading success Advanced in bilingual children © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

32 Learning Two Languages
Learn both at the same time No problems with language development Good at both by preschool One, then the other Takes 3 to 5 years to be as good as same-age native speakers of second language Both offer cognitive advantages of bilingualism Attention, reasoning, concepts, flexibility General language skills © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

33 Types of Bilingual Education
Language immersion Strong in Canada English-only Favored in U.S. Risk of semilingualism Bilingual education Support and instruction in native language while learning English © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007

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