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Child Development Laura E. Berk 7th editionChapter 9 Language Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Components of LanguagePhonology Rules about structure and sequence of speech sounds Semantics Vocabulary - words and word combinations for concepts Grammar Syntax - rules for sentences Morphology - grammatical markers Pragmatics Appropriate and effective communication © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Three Theories of Language DevelopmentBehaviorist Learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation Nativist Language Acquisition Device (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language through universal grammar Interactionist Inner capacities and environment work together; Social context is important © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Support for Biological Language PreparednessAnimal language Language seems to be unique to humans Brain structures Regions predisposed to language processing Sensitive period During brain lateralization © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Deaf Children’s LanguageDeaf children develop language even when they have: Minimal input Later than hearing children, but do develop Homesign Inconsistent input Extract rules Figure Simon’s performance on a challenging ASL grammatical task, compared with the performance of his parents and native-signing children and adults. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Language Areas of the BrainFigure Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Interactionist Theories of Language DevelopmentInformation-Processing Theories Statistical learning theory Brain studies Social Interactionist Theories Native desire for understanding combines with rich language environment © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Getting Ready to Talk: Receptivity to LanguageNewborns sensitive to speech Especially mother’s Categorical speech perception Ability to distinguish phonemes Statistical analysis, rule-learning Child-directed speech © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
First Speech Sounds Cooing - 2 months Babbling - 4 months Vowel soundsConsonants & vowels Universal timing Range expands © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Becoming a CommunicatorJoint attention Give-and-take Preverbal gestures Protodeclarative Protoimperative Word-gesture combinations © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Parental Responsiveness and Language LearningFigure Relationship of maternal responsiveness at 13 months to attainment of language milestones at 21 months. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Phonological DevelopmentEarly Phase First words - can only pronounce few sounds Related to semantic development Understand more than can say Phonological Strategies Later development Refine syllable stress patterns - related to meaning © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
One-Year-Olds Know PronunciationsFigure One-year-olds know the correct pronunciation of familiar words. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Phonological ProgressMinimal Words Add ending consonant Adjust vowel length Add unstressed syllables Produce full word, correct stress pattern May still need to refine sounds © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Early Semantic DevelopmentComprehension before production 5 month lag First words linked to cognition, emotion Vocabulary spurt 18-24 months Fast-mapping © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Individual Differences in Language DevelopmentGender Temperament Language environment Language Style Referential Expressive © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Types of Early Words More objects than actions Object and ActionObjects are easier concepts, parents rarely name verbs Influenced by culture & language State Modifiers or labels for attributes - size, color, possession Learn general distinctions before specific © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Preschoolers’ Semantic DevelopmentUnderextensions Overextensions Word coinages Metaphors © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Elementary School-Age Semantic DevelopmentBig vocabulary increase Fast-mapping continues Analyze word structure Use words precisely, understand multiple meanings - metaphors, puns Figure Estimated vocabulary from grades 1 to 5. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Adolescent Semantic DevelopmentAbstract terms Sarcasm, irony Figurative language Proverbs Figure Estimated vocabulary from grades 1 to 5 © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Factors Contributing to Semantic DevelopmentAdult feedback Cognitive processing Working memory - phonological store Strategies Lexical contrast Mutual exclusivity bias Syntactic bootstrapping Social information © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Early Grammatical DevelopmentTelegraphic speech 2-word combinations Simple sentences 3 words Follow adult rules piecemeal, gradually refine and generalize Figure Number of word combinations with novel nouns and verbs produced by 18- to 23-month-olds © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Development of Grammatical MorphemesStructural complexity affects order acquired Overregulation Applying rules without appropriate exceptions © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Complex Grammatical FormsNegatives Nonexistence Rejection Denial Questions Rising intonations Subject-verb inversion Correct yes-no questions precede wh- questions Other Complex Constructions Connectives Embedded sentences Tag questions Indirect object-direct object Passive sentences © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Views on Grammar DevelopmentProduct of cognitive development Semantic bootstrapping Direct observation of language structure Inborn capacities Categories for bootstrapping Language-making capacity Environmental support Adults correct indirectly with reformulations Asking for clarification Recasts Expansions © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Pragmatic Development2-year-olds can have effective conversations Early childhood - turnabout Middle childhood Shading Illocutionary knowledge © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Factors that Enhance Pragmatic DevelopmentAdult interactions Conversations Dialogues about storybooks, shared reading Siblings © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Testing Referential Communication SkillsFigure Scene used to test for referential communication skills. © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Development of Narrative SkillsLeapfrog narratives - 4 years Few evaluations Chronological narratives - 4-1/2 to 5 years Classical narratives - 6 years Narrative styles learned from adults Topic-associating style Haiku style © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Speech Registers Social routines Polite languageChildren sensitive to speech registers early years Important to social acceptance © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Metalinguistic AwarenessAbility to think about language as a system 4- and 5-year-olds have early understanding Flowers in middle childhood Phonological awareness associated with reading success Advanced in bilingual children © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Learning Two LanguagesLearn both at the same time No problems with language development Good at both by preschool One, then the other Takes 3 to 5 years to be as good as same-age native speakers of second language Both offer cognitive advantages of bilingualism Attention, reasoning, concepts, flexibility General language skills © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
Types of Bilingual EducationLanguage immersion Strong in Canada English-only Favored in U.S. Risk of semilingualism Bilingual education Support and instruction in native language while learning English © Allyn & Bacon/ Longman 2007
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