Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Development of Language and Communication Skills"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10 Development of Language and Communication Skills
2 FIVE COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE Phonology – knowledge of language’s sound system (phonetics)Morphology – rules specifying how words are formed from soundsSemantics – meanings expressed in wordsFree morphemes – stand alone wordsBound morphemes – cannot stand alone, change meaning of free morphemes when added
3 FIVE COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE Syntax – rules specifying how words are combined to produce sentencesPragmatics – principles governing how language is used in different social situationsAlso requires interpretation of nonverbal signals
4 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The Learning (Empiricist) PerspectiveImitation, reinforcement and correction are responsible for learning languageEvaluation of Learning PerspectiveImitation and reinforcement are importantSyntax (grammatical correctness) not reinforced
5 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The Nativist PerspectiveHumans are biologically programmed to acquire languageLanguage acquisition device – activated by verbal input (Chomsky)Universal grammar – common set of rulesLanguage-Making Capacity (Slobin)
6 Figure 10.1 A model of language acquisition proposed by nativists.
7 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Support for the Nativist PerspectivePresence of linguistic universalsLanguage is species specificBrain Specialization and LanguageBroca’s area – speech productionWernicke’s area – speech comprehensionSensitive-Period Hypothesis – language most easily acquired - birth to puberty
8 Figure 10.2 As shown here, there is a clear relationship between the age at which immigrants arrived in the United States and their eventual adult performance in English grammar. Those who arrived early in childhood end up performing like native speakers of English, whereas those who arrived as teenagers or adults perform much more poorly.
9 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Problems with the Nativist ApproachOther species show auditory discrimination early in lifeDoesn’t explain language developmentOverlooked the role of the environment
10 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The Interactionist PerspectiveBiological and Cognitive ContributorsBiologically prepared to acquire languageGradually maturing nervous system, develop similar ideas at same ageBiological maturation affects cognitive development, affecting language
11 Figure 10.3 Grammatical complexity increases as a function of the size of children’s productive vocabulary.
12 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Environmental SupportsLanguage is a means of communicatingLessons from Joint ActivitiesConversations require taking turnsLessons from Child-Directed SpeechShort, simple sentences (motherese)Becomes more complex with language development
13 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Environmental Supports, continuedLessons from Negative EvidenceRespond to ungrammatical speechExpansion – corrected and enriched versionRecast – new grammatical formsImportance of ConversationMust be involved in using language, exposure to speech is not sufficient
14 Figure 10.4 An overview of the interactionist perspective on language development.
15 BEFORE LANGUAGE: THE PRELINGUSITC PERIOD Early Reactions to Speech3 days old, prefer mother’s voiceCan distinguish phonemes adults cannotThe Importance of Intonational CuesSensitive to cues from birth7 months sensitive to phrase units
16 BEFORE LANGUAGE: THE PRELINGUSITC PERIOD Producing Sounds: Prelinguistic Vocalizations2 months – cooing (vowel sounds)4-6 months – babbling (vowel + consonant)10-12 months – vocables – reserving sounds for particular situations
17 BEFORE LANGUAGE: THE PRELINGUSITC PERIOD What Do Prelinguistic Infants Know about Language and Communication?7-8 months, vocal turn takingGestures and Nonverbal Communication8-10 monthsDeclarative – directing attentionImperative – alter others’ behavior
18 BEFORE LANGUAGE: THE PRELINGUSITC PERIOD Do Preverbal Infants Understand the Meaning of Words?12-13 months – yesReceptive language (understanding) develops earlier than productive language (expression)
19 ONE WORD AT A TIME: THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD Holophrase – one word “sentences”Early Semantics: Building a VocabularyVocabulary grows one word at a timeNaming explosion – monthsTalk most about manipulable objectsMultimodel motherese – exaggerated sentences by an adult accompanied by an action explaining the words
20 Table 10.1 Types of Words Used by Children with Productive Vocabularies of 50 Words. SOURCE: Adapted from Nelson, 1973.
21 ONE WORD AT A TIME: THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD Individual and Cultural VariationsReferential style – word refer to people or objects (Western cultures)Expressive style – personal/social words (Eastern cultures)Birth order influences language style
22 ONE WORD AT A TIME: THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD Attaching Meaning to WordsFast-mapping – quickly acquiring a word after hearing it applied a few timesGood at months, better for understanding, difficult retrieving words from memory
23 ONE WORD AT A TIME: THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD Common Errors in Word UseOverextension – overgeneralizationUnderextension – using word for small range of objectsStrategies for Inferring Word MeaningsUse of social and contextual cuesProcessing constraintsObject scope; Mutual exclusivity; lexical constraint
24 Table 10.2 Some Processing Strategies, or Constraints, That Guide Young Children’s Inferences about the Meaning of New Words.
25 ONE WORD AT A TIME: THE HOLOPHRASE PERIOD Syntactical Clues to Word MeaningSyntactical bootstrapping – learning meaning from sentence structureNoun – objectAdjective – characteristic of objectCausation – action word
26 THE TELEGRAHPIC PERIOD: FROM HOLOPHRASES TO SIMPLE SENTENCES Telegraphic speech – monthsSimple sentences, containing only critical words (no grammatical markers)More common in languages where word order is more important than grammatical markersA Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic Speech
27 Table 10.3 Similarities in Children’s Spontaneous Two-Word Sentences in Four Languages. SOURCE: Adapted from Slobin, 1979.
28 THE TELEGRAHPIC PERIOD: FROM HOLOPHRASES TO SIMPLE SENTENCES A Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic SpeechFollows some grammatical rulesContext is also vital for understanding meaningThe Pragmatics of Early Speech2 year olds – good at vocal turn-takingPrefer to talk about unshared informationMonitor responses to clarify meaningUnderstanding need to be polite
29 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Preschool period (2 ½-5) sentences become complex and adultlikeGrammatical DevelopmentDevelopment of Grammatical MorphemesGrammatical morphemes – modifiers give more precise meaning to sentences‘s’ for plurality; ‘ed’ for past tense‘ing’ for present progressive
30 Table 10.4 Samples of One Boy’s Speech at Three Ages.
31 Table 10.5 Order of Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphemes.
32 Figure 10.5 A linguistic puzzle used to determine young children’s understanding of the rule for forming plurals in English.
33 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Grammatical Morphemes - continuedAcquired in a specific orderOverregularization – overextend new grammatical morphemesRelatively rare
34 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Mastering Transformational RulesTransformation grammar – rules for creating variations of declarative sentencesAsking questionsYes/no – rising intonationWh- questions (who, what, where, when, why)Moving auxiliary verb
35 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Producing Negative SentencesNegative before sentenceMove negative inside sentenceCombine negative with auxiliary verbProducing Complex SentencesAge 3 - clauses, conjunctions first, embedded sentences next5-6 good grammar
36 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Semantic Development2-5 understand and express relational contrastsBig/little; tall/short; in/on; here/thereFrequently misinterpret passives
37 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Development of Pragmatics and Communication Skills3 year olds – illocutionary intent – real meaning may be different than literal meaning of words3-5 – must tailor messages to communicate effectively
38 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Referential CommunicationAbility to detect ambiguities in others’ speech and ask for clarificationPreschool – fail to detect linguistic ambiguitiesGenerally successfully guessAssume own uninformative sentences are clearBetter in natural environment than lab
39 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING MIDDLE CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE Later Syntactical DevelopmentMiddle childhood – syntactical refinementSubtle rules, complex structuresSemantic and Metalinguistic AwarenessRapid vocabulary growth –Morphological knowledge – meaning of morphemes to determine new wordsAdd abstract words9 to 11 – recognize and make inferences
40 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Metalinguistic awarenessThinking about language and comment on propertiesGrammatical awarenessPhonological awareness – linked to reading achievement
41 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD Further Development of Communication SkillsDramatic improvement in referential communication skills by 6 or 7Less egocentric, more role-takingyears old – more clarification for ambiguous information
42 Table 10.6 Typical Idiosyncratic Descriptions Offered by Preschool Children When Talking about Unfamiliar Graphic Designs in the Krauss and Glucksberg Communication Game.
43 LANGUAGE LEARNING DURING THE PRESCHOOL PERIOD What Role Do Siblings Play in the Growth of Communication Skills?Promotes effective communicationSiblings less likely to adjust speech, but then more likely to monitor and fix ambiguous messagesLess likely to interpret ambiguous message from younger sibling – forcing them to adjust
44 Table 10.7 Important Milestones in Language Development.
45 Bilingualism: Challenges and Consequences of Learning Two Languages Exposure to 2 languages prior to age 3, proficient in bothPreschool children, often learn second language to proficiency in 1 yearCognitive advantagesScore higher on IQ tests, metalinguistic awareness, better selective attention
46 Bilingualism: Challenges and Consequences of Learning Two Languages English-only instructionCauses LEP children to struggle academicallyDo not acquire sufficient level of skill in English
47 Bilingualism: Challenges and Consequences of Learning Two Languages Two-way bilingual educationHalf day in English, half in second languageBeneficial for both students with limited English proficiency and students fluent in English