Presentation on theme: "Development Through the Lifespan"— Presentation transcript:
1 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 7Physical and CognitiveDevelopment inEarly ChildhoodThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
2 Physical Development in Early Childhood Body Growth SlowsShape becomes more streamlinedSkeletal Growth ContinuesNew growth centersLose baby teethAsynchroniesBrain, lymph nodes grow fastest
3 Brain Development in Early Childhood Frontal lobe areas for planning and organization develop.Left hemisphere activeLanguage skillsHandednessLinking areas of the brain developCerebellum, reticular formation, corpus callosum
4 Influences on Physical Growth and Health Heredity and HormonesGrowth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormoneEmotional Well-BeingPsychosocial dwarfismNutritionInfectious DiseaseImmunizationChildhood Injuries
5 Factors Related to Childhood Injuries Individual DifferencesGenderTemperamentPoverty, low parental educationMore children in the homeSocietal conditionsInternational differences
6 Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood Gross Motor SkillsWalking, running smootherCatching, throwing, swinging, ridingFine Motor SkillsSelf-help: dressing, eatingDrawing
7 Progression of Drawing Skills Scribbles – during 2nd yearFirst Representational FormsLabel already-made drawings – around age 3Draw boundaries and people –3–4 yearsMore Realistic Drawings – preschool to school ageEarly Printing – Ages 3–5
8 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Ages 2 to 7Gains in Mental RepresentationMake-believe PlayLimitations in Thought — Cannot Perform Mental OperationsEgocentrismConservationHierarchical Classification
9 Limits on Conservation Centration – Focus on one aspect and neglect othersIrreversibility – Cannot mentally reverse a set of steps
10 Early Childhood Development of Make-Believe With age, make-believe gradually becomes:More detached from real life conditionsLess self-centeredMore complexSociodramatic Play
13 Educational Principles Derived from Piaget’s Theory Discovery learningSensitivity to children’s readiness to learnDevelopmentally appropriate practiceAcceptance of individual differences
14 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory and Early Childhood Private SpeechHelps guide behaviorGradually becomes more silentZone of Proximal DevelopmentScaffolding supports children’s learning.Assisted discovery and peer collaboration also help children learn.
16 Improvements in Information Processing AttentionPlanningMemoryMemory StrategiesEveryday ExperiencesTheory of MindMetacognitionEmerging LiteracyMathematical ReasoningOrdinality, Counting, and Cardinality
17 Development of Theory of Mind Awareness of Mental Life – infancy – age 3Mastery of False Beliefs – around age 4
18 Individual Differences in Early Childhood Mental Development Factors Contributing to Individual Differences:Home environmentQuality of child care, preschool or kindergartenChild-centered versus academicEarly intervention programsTelevisionEducational TV