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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood This multimedia product.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood This multimedia product."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Physical Development in Early Childhood Body Growth Slows Shape becomes more streamlined Skeletal Growth Continues New growth centers Lose baby teeth Asynchronies Brain, lymph nodes grow fastest

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Brain Development in Early Childhood Frontal lobe areas for planning and organization develop. Left hemisphere active Language skills Handedness Linking areas of the brain develop Cerebellum, reticular formation, corpus callosum

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Influences on Physical Growth and Health Heredity and Hormones Growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone Emotional Well-Being Psychosocial dwarfism Nutrition Infectious Disease Immunization Childhood Injuries

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors Related to Childhood Injuries Individual Differences Gender Temperament Poverty, low parental education More children in the home Societal conditions International differences

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood Gross Motor Skills Walking, running smoother Catching, throwing, swinging, riding Fine Motor Skills Self-help: dressing, eating Drawing

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Progression of Drawing Skills Scribbles – during 2nd year First Representational Forms Label already-made drawings – around age 3 Draw boundaries and people – 3–4 years More Realistic Drawings – preschool to school age Early Printing – Ages 3–5

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Piagets Preoperational Stage Ages 2 to 7 Gains in Mental Representation Make-believe Play Limitations in Thought Cannot Perform Mental Operations Egocentrism Conservation Hierarchical Classification

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Limits on Conservation Centration – Focus on one aspect and neglect others Irreversibility – Cannot mentally reverse a set of steps

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Early Childhood Development of Make-Believe With age, make- believe gradually becomes: More detached from real life conditions Less self-centered More complex Sociodramatic Play

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Piagetian Class Inclusion Problem

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Follow-Up Research on Preoperational Thought Egocentric Thought Can adjust language to others and take others perspectives in simple situations. Animistic thinking comes from incomplete knowledge of objects. Illogical Thought Can do simplified conservation Can reason by analogy Use causal expressions Categorization Everyday knowledge is categorized. Appearance versus reality Make-believe helps children tell the difference. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004

13 Educational Principles Derived from Piagets Theory Discovery learning Sensitivity to childrens readiness to learn Developmentally appropriate practice Acceptance of individual differences

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory and Early Childhood Private Speech Helps guide behavior Gradually becomes more silent Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding supports childrens learning. Assisted discovery and peer collaboration also help children learn.

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Model of Information Processing System

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Improvements in Information Processing Attention Planning Memory Memory Strategies Everyday Experiences Theory of Mind Metacognition Emerging Literacy Mathematical Reasoning Ordinality, Counting, and Cardinality

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development of Theory of Mind Awareness of Mental Life – infancy – age 3 Mastery of False Beliefs – around age 4

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Individual Differences in Early Childhood Mental Development Factors Contributing to Individual Differences: Home environment Quality of child care, preschool or kindergarten Child-centered versus academic Early intervention programs Television Educational TV

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Child Care Arrangements for Preschoolers

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Language Development in Early Childhood Vocabulary Fast-mapping Grammar Overregularization Conversation Pragmatics Supporting Language Development Expansions Recasts


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