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Prenatal Development And Birth5 Prenatal Development And Birth Cognitive Development in Infancy This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Piaget’s Views Recall from Chapter Two Assimilation Process of using schemes to make sense of experiences Accommodation Changing a scheme to incorporate new information Sensorimotor Intelligence Refinement of innate schemes by experiences Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage 18 to 24 months 6. Transition to Symbolic Thought 12 to 18 months 5. Tertiary Circular Reactions 10 to 12 months 4. Coordination of Secondary Schemes 4 to 10 months 3. Secondary Circular Reactions 1 to 4 months 2. Primary Circular Reactions Birth to 1 month 1. Basic Reflexes AGE SENSORIMOTOR SUBSTAGE Basic Reflexes The first schemes are inborn reflexes. EXAMPLES: Rooting, sucking, grasping reflexes. 2. Primary Circular Reactions Infants discover actions involving their own bodies by accident, then learn by trial and error to repeat them until they become habits (schemes). EXAMPLES: At first thumb comes to mouth by accident. Through trial and error infants learn to reproduce the event until a thumb-sucking scheme becomes established. 3. Secondary Circular Reactions Infants discover actions involving objects in the environment by accident, then learn by trial and error to repeat them until they become habits (schemes). EXAMPLES Holding a rattle, an infant may accidentally shake the rattle and enjoy the noise. Through trial and error the infant learns to reproduce the event until a shaking scheme becomes established. 4. Coordination of Secondary Schemes Infants intentionally put two schemes together to solve a problem or reach a goal. Intentionality is a new feature—these new behaviors are no longer discovered by accident. An infant sees a toy behind a box, pushes the box aside, then reaches for the toy. The infant intentionally combined pushing and reaching schemes to reach the goal (the toy). 5. Tertiary Circular Reactions Babies are curious about objects in the world and explore them in a trial-and-error fashion, trying to produce novel reactions. A baby drops a ball from shoulder height and watches what happens. The baby then explores the “dropping scheme” by dropping the ball from hip height, then from head height, then from knee height, observing each new result. 6. Transition to Symbolic Thought Toddlers begin to form symbolic representations of events, showing the beginnings of mental thought. Representations still tend to be physical (rather than purely mental), as when toddlers use their own body movements to represent movements of objects in the world. A 1½-year-old girl would like to open the lid of a box, and to think about this she opens and closes her hand repeatedly. Rather than work directly on the box, she first uses her hand motion as a way to “think” about how to open it. She is thinking about the box using a symbolic representation (her hand). Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Object Permanence The realization that objects still exist when hidden 2 months – rudimentary expectations shown by surprise when an object disappears 6 – 8 months – looking for a missing object for a brief period of time 8 – 12 months – reaching for or search for a toy that is hidden Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Imitation 2 months – can imitate actions they could see themselves make 8 – 12 months – can imitate other people’s facial expressions 1 year – imitation of any action that wasn’t in the child’s repertoire begins 18 months – deferred imitation (a child’s imitation of some action at a later time) begins Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Figure 5.1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Challenge to Piaget’s View Piaget underestimates the cognitive capacity of infants. He may have wrongly equated the infant’s lack of physical ability with lack of cognitive understanding. Object permanence occurs much earlier than he predicted. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Modern Studies of Object Permanence Baillargeon Babies as young as 4 months show clear signs of object permanence. Recent theories Development of object permanence is more of a process of elaboration than of discovery. Biallargeon and others used possible/impossible events and habituation methods to study object permanence. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Figure 5.2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Figure 5.3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Figure 5.4
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering Learning Permanent changes in behavior that result from experience Classical conditioning Learning of emotional responses as early as the first week of life Operant conditioning Both sucking responses and head-turning have been increased using reinforcement. Classical conditioning research – Gunther and breast-feeding: babies who felt smothered by the left breast learned to refuse the left breast. Operant conditioning – reinforcements – sounds of mother’s voice or heartbeat, sweet liquids; the mother’s voice is an effective reinforcer for virtually all babies. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering Schematic Learning The organization of experiences into expectancies, or “known” combinations. Categories By 7 months infants actively use categories to process information. Cannot process levels of categories Babies respond differently to animals and furniture but not to dogs and birds. Hierarchical categories appear by 2 years. Schematic Learning – often called schemas – built up over many exposures to a particular experience; help baby to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar. Superordinates – a higher-level category that includes lower-level categories; animal is a superordinate that contains dogs. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Learning, Categorizing, and Remembering Memory Carolyn Rovee-Collier Babies as young as 3 months can remember specific objects and their own actions for as long as a week. Newborns appear to be able to remember auditory stimuli to which they are exposed while sleeping. Rovee-Collier – hangs an attractive mobile over a baby’s crib, attaches a ribbon to the baby’s leg, records leg kicks. Supports the idea that the young infant is more developmentally sophisticated than developmentalists and Piaget had supposed. Infant memory is tied strongly to the context in which learning takes place. Change the mobile or the bunting even slightly and the memory will not be recalled. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Figure 5.5
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006The Beginnings of Language The Behaviorist View B. F. Skinner Begins with babbling, which the parents reinforce Responds to grammatical use of words with reinforcement Withholds reinforcement for nongrammatical words Correct grammar is reinforced and becomes more frequent. Theory makes sense on surface and can explain some variations but does not completely tell the story of language acquisition. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006The Beginnings of Language The Nativist View Noam Chomsky Children make rule-governed grammatical errors. LAD – Language Acquisition Device An innate language processor which contains the basic grammatical structure of all human language Infants prefer speech in a particular pattern – motherese or infant-directed speech. Rule-governed grammatical errors – almost all 3-year olds overregularize the past tense of verbs. “Yesterday we goed to the store,” or, “I breaked my cookie.” LAD separates sounds into vowels and consonants. All human languages have the same form according to Chomsky. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006The Beginnings of Language The Constructivist View Language development is part of a broader process of cognitive development. Language is used to express only those meanings the child has already formulated. New words are learned when they help to communicate thoughts and ideas. Melissa Bowerman – “ When language starts to come in, it does not introduce new meanings to the child. Rather, it is used to express only those meanings the child has already formulated.” Lois Bloom – from the beginning, the child’s attempt is to communicate, and he learns new words when they help him to communicate his thoughts and ideas. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006The Beginnings of Language Eclectic Approach Exposure to Language Children’s experiences in the earliest years influence language. Poverty influences a substantial gap in vocabulary by age 4 and widens over the school years. Children whose parents talk to them often develop richer vocabularies and more complex sentences. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006The Beginnings of Language Eclectic Approach Motherese Speech in a higher pitch Adults repeat often, introduce minor variations, use slightly more elongated sentences. Babies prefer motherese. A baby more easily imitates a correct grammatical form “recast” from his own sentences by and adult. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Questions to Ponder Which language theory appears to be right to you? Why? What are three effective strategies parents may use to help stimulate language development in their children? Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Sounds, Gestures, and Word Meanings Birth – 1 month Crying is the predominant sound 1 – 2 months Laughing and cooing sounds (aaaaa) 6 – 7 months Babbling; repetitive vowel–consonant combinations Initially babbling contains all kinds of sounds; by 9 or 10 months, babies typically begin to babble closer and closer to the language they hear. Babbling is also linked to gestures for demanding or asking for something. Parents encourage gestures at this age as well. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Sounds, Gestures, and Word Meanings Receptive language The ability to understand words 8 months — begin to store words in memory 9 – 10 months — can understand 20 – 30 words. 13 months — 100 words Receptive language – the ability to understand words Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006The First Words Expressive language The ability to produce words 12 months — babies begin to say first words Words are learned slowly in context with specific situations and cues. Expressive language – the ability to produce words. Repetition provides the mechanism for word production. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006The First Words Holophrases Combining a single word with gestures to make a complete thought Used between 12 and 18 months. Naming Explosion Used between 16 and 24 months 16 months old – 50 words in vocabulary 24 months old – 320 words Vocabulary grows in spurts Naming explosion includes names for things or people. Action words tend to appear later. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006The First Sentences Sentences appear at 18 – 24 months Child has a threshold vocabulary of 100 words Sentences are short, generally 2 or 3 words, and simple Sometimes called “telegraphic speech.” Create sentences following rules Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Individual Differences in Language Development Differences in rate of language development A wide range of normal variations exists in sentence structures. Most children catch up. Those who don’t catch up have poor receptive language. Poor receptive language may lead to poor cognitive development in general. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Figure 5.6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Individual Differences in Language Development Differences in Style Expressive style Early vocabulary linked to social relationships rather than objects Referential style Early vocabulary made up of names of things or people Often advanced in understanding adult language Expressive style – These children often learn pronouns (you, me) early and use many more personal social words such as no, yes, want, or please; they use multi-word strings such as love you and do it or go away. Expressive language may sound advanced but often has a smaller vocabulary. According to Bates, referential style children are more cognitively oriented. They are drawn to objects, spend more time in solitary play, and interact with people more than objects. These children are often advanced in understanding adult language. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Figure 5.7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Language Development Across Cultures Cooing, babbling, first words, holophrases, and telegraphic speech are typically found in all languages. The use of specific word order in early sentences is not the same. Particular inflections are learned in highly varying order. Some languages – noun/verb common. Others – verb/noun. Inflections – Japanese: Yo is used at the end of a sentence when the speaker is experiencing some resistance from the listener; the word me is used when the speaker expects approval or agreement. Turkish – no two-word sentence stage – essentially all inflections are learned by age 2. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006Measuring Intelligence in Infancy Bailey Scales of Infant Development Measure sensory and motor skills Help identify children with serious developmental delays Instead of testing school-like skills (skills an infant does not yet have) the items measure primarily sensory and motor skills, such as reaching for a dangling ring (an item for a typical baby at 3 months), putting cubes in a cup on request (9 months), or building a tower of three cubes (17 months). Some more clearly cognitive items are also included, such as uncovering a toy hidden by a cloth, an item used with 8-month-old infants to measure an aspect of object permanence. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
Prenatal Development And Birth5 Prenatal Development And Birth End Show This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006
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