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7-1©2005 Prentice Hall 7 Creating a Motivating Work Setting Chapter 7 Creating a Motivating Work Setting
7-2 ©2005 Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives Appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of the scientific management approach to job design Describe the job characteristics model and its implications for using job design to create a motivating work setting Understand implications of the social information processing model
7-3 ©2005 Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives Appreciate how and why organizational objectives can motivate employees Describe goal setting theory and the kinds of goals that contribute to a motivating work setting
7-4 ©2005 Prentice Hall Opening Case: Motivating Employees at Norsk Hydro How can organizations create a motivating work setting? Norway’s biggest industrial company Known for initiatives to promote job satisfaction and well-being Holistic approach to job design Emphasis on work significance
7-5 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 7.1 Motivation Tools
7-6 ©2005 Prentice Hall What is Job Design? Linking specific tasks to specific jobs Deciding what techniques, equipment, and procedures should be used to perform those tasks Job design may increase motivation and encourage good performance
7-7 ©2005 Prentice Hall Job Design: Early Approaches Scientific Management Job Enlargement Job Enrichment
7-8 ©2005 Prentice Hall Scientific Management A set of principles and practices stressing job simplification and specialization There is one best way to perform any job Management’s responsibility is to determine what that way is Time and Motion Studies
7-9 ©2005 Prentice Hall Disadvantages of the Scientific Management Method Loss of control Repetitive, boring tasks Meaningless, monotonous work High job dissatisfaction No opportunity to develop and acquire new skills
7-10 ©2005 Prentice Hall Job Enlargement Increasing the number of tasks an employee performs but keeping all of the tasks at the same level of difficulty and responsibility Horizontal job loading Do more tasks Equal level of responsibility Intended to increase intrinsic motivation
7-11 ©2005 Prentice Hall Job Enrichment Designing jobs to provide opportunities for employee growth by giving employees more responsibility and control over their work Vertical job loading Based on Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
7-12 ©2005 Prentice Hall Enrichment Methods Allow employees to plan their own work schedules Allow employees to decide how the work should be performed Allow employees to check their own work Allow employees to learn new skills
7-13 ©2005 Prentice Hall The Job Characteristics Model Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback
7-14 ©2005 Prentice Hall Job Diagnostic Survey Scales used to measure the five dimensions Allows for the computation of a job’s motivating potential score –A measure of the overall potential of a job to foster intrinsic motivation –Average of skill variety, task identity, and task significance multiplied by autonomy and feedback Identifies the dimensions most in need of redesign
7-15 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 7.3 Sample Job Diagnostic Survey Profiles
7-16 ©2005 Prentice Hall Ways to Redesign Jobs to Increase MPS Combine tasks so that an employee is responsible for work from start to finish Group tasks into natural work units Allow employees to interact with customers or clients Vertically load jobs to give employees more control and higher levels of responsibility Open feedback channels
7-17 ©2005 Prentice Hall Job Dimensions and Psychological States Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for work outcomes Knowledge of results
7-18 ©2005 Prentice Hall Work and Personal Outcomes High intrinsic motivation High job performance High job satisfaction Low absenteeism and turnover
7-19 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 7.4 The Job Characteristics Model
7-20 ©2005 Prentice Hall Individual Differences Growth-need strength Knowledge and skills Satisfaction with the work context
7-21 ©2005 Prentice Hall The Social Information Processing Model Factors other than the core dimensions influence how employees respond to job design –Social information Social environment provides employees with information about how they should evaluate their jobs and work outcomes
7-22 ©2005 Prentice Hall Meeting Organizational Objectives Social Identity Theory Goal Setting Management by Objectives (MBO)
7-23 ©2005 Prentice Hall Social Identity Theory People tend to classify themselves and others into social categories –Team membership –Religious affiliation
7-24 ©2005 Prentice Hall Goal Setting Explains what types of goals are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance Emphasizes how to motivate employees to contribute inputs to their jobs Stresses importance of ensuring that employees’ inputs result in acceptable levels of job performance
7-25 ©2005 Prentice Hall Goal Characteristics (SMART) Specificity Measurable Attainable Realistic Time-related
7-26 ©2005 Prentice Hall How Do Goals Affect Motivation? By directing employees’ attention and action toward goal-relevant activities By encouraging higher levels of effort By encouraging the development of action plans By causing persistence in the face of difficulty
7-27 ©2005 Prentice Hall Management By Objectives (MBO) Goal-setting process –Setting and evaluation of goals with manager on periodic basis Basic Steps –Goal setting –Implementation –evaluation
7-28 ©2005 Prentice Hall Figure 7.5 Basic Steps in MBO Goal setting ImplementationEvaluation
Hackman & Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model Core DimensionsPsychological StatesOutcomes Skill Variety Task Identity Task Signif. Autonomy Feedback Meaningfulness.
7-1©2005 Prentice Hall 7: Creating a Motivating Work Setting Chapter 7: Creating a Motivating Work Setting Organizational Behavior 4th Edition JENNIFER.
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