GOAL SETTING AND JOB DESIGN APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
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Presentation on theme: "GOAL SETTING AND JOB DESIGN APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION"— Presentation transcript:
1 GOAL SETTING AND JOB DESIGN APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION
2 Goal Setting and Motivation Goal setting is a useful method of enhancing employee performance. From a motivational perspective, a goal is a desirable objective.Goal setting, as a theory of motivation, assumes that behavior is a result of conscious goals and intentions.
3 Goals are useful for two purposes: Goals provide a useful framework for managing motivation. Managers and employees can set goals for themselves and then work toward them.Goals are an effective control device; control is monitoring by management of how well the organization is performing.
4 GOAL SETTING: Four Key Parts Goal DifficultyIs the extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort. Difficult, yet realistic, goals are the most effective.Goal SpecificityIs the clarity and precision of a goal. Specific, rather than vague, goals are the most effective.
5 GOAL SETTING: Four Key Parts Goal AcceptanceIs the extent to which persons accept goals as their own.Goal CommitmentIs the extent to which a person is personally interested in reaching a goal.
7 Broader Perspectives on Goal Setting Overall GoalsSubsidiary/Unit GoalsSubordinate GoalsReview and Revise Subordinate Goals
8 Management By Objectives (MBO) A collaborative goal-setting process through which organizational goals cascade down throughout the organization.MBO programs help implement goal-setting theory on a systematic basis throughout the organization.
9 Goal Setting and Motivation DO THESE IDEAS TRANSFER TO OTHER CULTURES?ARE DIFFICULTY, SPECIFICITY, ACCEPTANCE, AND COMMITMENT IMPORTANT IN ALL CULTURES?
10 Job Characteristics Model Five Job CharacteristicsSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedbackThree Critical Psychological StatesGrowth Need StrengthExperienced meaningfulnessof workExperienced responsibility for work outcomesKnowledge ofactual workresultsPersonal and Work OutcomesHigh internalworkmotivationHigh qualityworkperformanceHighsatisfactionwith the workLow absenteeismand turnover
11 Job Characteristics Theory Core Job Dimensions Skill VarietyThe degree to which the job requires a variety of activities that involve different skills and talents.Task IdentityThe degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and an identifiable piece of work.The extent to which a job has a beginning and an end with a tangible outcome.Task SignificanceThe degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people, both in the immediate organization and in the external environment.
12 Job Characteristics Theory: Core Job Dimensions AutonomyThe degree to which the job allows the individual substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to schedule the work and determine the procedures for carrying it out.FeedbackThe degree to which the job activities give the individual direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
13 Job Characteristics Theory: Critical Psychological States Experienced meaningfulness of the workThe degree to which the individual experiences the job as generally meaningful, valuable, and worthwhile.Experienced responsibility for work outcomesThe degree to which individuals feel personally accountable and responsible for the result of their work.Knowledge of resultsThe degree to which individuals continuously understand how effectively they are performing their job.
14 JOB DESIGN ACROSS CULTURES WHAT ARE THE KEY PARTS OF THIS APPROACH THAT WILL DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THIS APPROACH WILL WORK IN OTHER CULTURES?DESIRE FOR CORE JOB DIMENSIONS?CRITICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES?IMPORTANCE OF GROWTH NEEDS?