2 Approaches to Job Design Work SimplificationAdvocated by Frederick TaylorBreak jobs down into simple components (small tasks)Hire/Train people in necessary KSAs for componentsLower skill levels neededCheaper for the organizationCan decrease potential for errorsHave “expert” employees (specialists)Product produced by combining effortsEmployees are replaceable “cogs” in the machine
3 Consequences of Work Simplification EmotionalResponseBehavioralResponseProcessPerceptionFeelingWorkSimplificationMonotonyBoredomJobDissatisfactionTardinessAbsenteeismTurnoverStress
5 Job Change Strategies Job enlargement Job enrichment Increasing the number and variety of tasksJob enrichmentIncreasing the amount of control over planning and performance of a jobIncreasing involvement in setting organizational policy
6 Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factorssalarycompany policyphysical facilitiesadministrationworking conditionsco-worker relationsMotivatorschallengeautonomyadvancementrecognition
7 Job Characteristics Model CriticalPsychologicalStatesCore JobDimensionsPersonal andWork OutcomesSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceHigh internal workMotivationHigh quality workPerformanceHigh satisfactionWith workLow absenteeismAnd turnoverExperienced meaningfulnessof workExperienced responsibilityfor work outcomesAutonomyKnowledge of actualresults of activitiesFeedbackGrowth NeedStrength
9 Summary There is no “one best way” to design jobs Simple Jobs advantagesCan reduce potential for errorBe cheaper to staffIncrease efficiencydisadvantagesResult in decreased motivationResult in decreased satisfactionResult in decreased attendance/tenureEnriched JobsCan enhance motivation and satisfactionMay increase costs to organizationmore trainingmore compensation
10 Organizational Structure Why use organizations?Facilitate complex goal accomplishmentReduce individual riskOrganizational StructureForm or Shape of OrganizationHelps coordinate system activitye.g., decision making, communication, etc.
11 Classical Organizational Theory Organizational ComponentsA system of differentiated activitiesPeopleAuthorityCooperationStructural PrinciplesFunctional PrincipleScalar PrincipleLine/Staff PrincipleSpan of Control Principle
12 Applied Example Moon Tent Exercise Communication was “top-down” Decision making was “top-down”
13 Neoclassical Organizational Theory Critiqued principles of Classical theoryFunctional PrincipleScalar PrincipleLine/Staff PrincipleSpan of Control
14 Systems Theory Inputs Transformation Outputs InformationEquipmentFacilitiesMaterialsMoneyTechnologyTransformationOrganizationHuman ResourcesOutputsProductsGoodsServicesCustomer FeedbackInputsInformationEquipmentFacilitiesMaterialsMoneyTechnologyTransformationOrganizationHuman ResourcesOutputsProductsGoodsServicesCharacteristics of Systems’ TheoriesSubsystemsSynergyInput/Output ModelGoal seekingEntropyDynamic EquilibriumFeedbackCustomer Feedback
15 Methods of Coordination Mutual AdjustmentDirect SupervisionStandardization of Work ProcessesStandardization of Work OutputStandardization of Skills and KnowledgeAs organizations become increasingly complex, the mechanisms needed to control/coordinate behavior need to be more complex.