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Figure 6.1 Philosophy and Professionalism ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional, 2 nd Edition Kauchak and Eggen
Table 6.1 The Traditional Schools of Philosophy Instruction emphasizes discussion designed to increase individual self- awareness. Curricula and instruction focus on problem solving and the scientific method. Curricula focus on content that emphasizes natural laws. Curricula focus on content that emphasizes time- honored ideas. Educational Implications Values are chosen by the individual. Values are relative.Values are absolute based on natural law. Values are absolute based on enduring ideas. Axiology Knowing is making personal choice. Knowing is the result of experience based on the scientific method. Knowing is observing and understanding natural laws. Knowing is the personal rethinking of universal ideas. Epistemology Reality is the subjective interpretation of the physical world. Reality is the interaction of the individual and the environment. Reality is the physical world. Reality is the world of unchanging ideas. Metaphysics ExistentialismPragmatismRealismIdealism ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional, 2 nd Edition Kauchak and Eggen
Critically examine today’s institutions; elevate the status of marginalized people (women and cultural minorities). Acquire ability to function in the real world; develop problem- solving skills. Acquire basic skills; acquire knowledge needed to function in today’s world. Train the intellect; moral development. Educational Goals Collaborative between teacher and student; emphasis on the exposure of hidden assumptions. Continuous feedback; informal monitoring of student progress. Frequent objective, essay, and performance tests. Frequent objective and essay tests. Assessment Community-oriented; self- regulated. Collaborative; self- regulated; democratic. High structure; high levels of time on task. Learning Environment Discussion; role play; simulation; personal research. Problem-based learning, cooperative learning; guided discovery. Lecture; practice and feedback; questioning. Lecture; questioning; coaching in intellectual thinking. Teaching Methods Facilitate discussions that involve clarifying issues. Guide learning with questioning; develop and guide practical problem- solving activities. Deliver clear lectures; increase student understanding with critical questions. Role of the Teacher Emphasis on the works of marginalized people. Emphasis on problem solving and skills needed in today’s world. Emphasis on basic skills. Emphasis on enduring ideas. Curriculum ExistentialismPragmatismIdealism, Realism Traditional Philosophy Most Closely Related PostmodernismProgressivismEssentialismPerennialism ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional, 2 nd Edition Kauchak and Eggen Table 6.2 Classroom Applications of the Educational Philosophies
Table 6.3 An Analysis of Allie’s Philosophy of Education “We’re going to have class discussions, do homework, go over it, have quizzes, and go over them.” “There’s real, practical stuff out there that they need to know, and there’s only one way they’re gonna learn it... That’s practice and experience.” “The more they learn about the topics, the better they like what they study. Relevance isn’t as critical to the kids’ motivation as understanding and success are.” “The more they know about a topic, the better they like it.” “If the kids understand the stuff, they’ll like it, and the better they’ll feel about themselves.” “I want them to know why, how they know, and what would happen when conditions change.” “[Kids] feel good when they learned something, particularly if it’s challenging.” “Some of them might be in it mostly for grades to start with.” “They’re not intrinsically motivated.” “Kids basically want to learn.”“They want to believe they did learn something when they’re finished with a topic, or class...” “They may not be too crazy about it initially...”“They [kids] don’t come to school with the same... desire to learn as they once did.” Component of Her PhilosophyBelief Statement ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional, 2 nd Edition Kauchak and Eggen
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