Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Mid-twentieth century Theories Humanistic Perspective."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT 3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Mid-twentieth century Theories Humanistic Perspective
Developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’ focus on conscious forces and self perception more positive view of basic forces than Freud’s
Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers (1902–1987)Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
EVOLUTION Humanistic psychology emerged in the mid-1950’s and complemented behaviorism and psychoanalysis with its focus on the individual as a whole person. Continued to grow in the second half of the 20 th century
Key Features Emphasizes the study of the whole person. An individual’s behavior is primarily determined by perception of world around him. Individuals are not solely the product of their environment Individuals are internally directed an motivated to fulfill their potential. Emphasizes the ‘natural desire’ of everyone to learn. Whether this natural desire is to learn whatever it is you are teaching, however, is not clear.
According to humanistic psychologists, we are motivated not merely to survive, but to become better and better. This process is called self-actualization.
Humanistic Perspective Major Theorists Rogers (√ ) Maslow (√ ) N. V. Peale
Abraham Maslow’s Philosophy Proposed that People have a hierarchy of needs. The goal of psychological growth is to meet the needs to achieve self-actualization. Personality is shaped by motivation to satisfy a hierarchy of needs. To understand humans, you must understand their highest aspirations. Each individual is borne with inner nature and that is shaped by experiences and unconscious thoughts and feelings. Human values are intrinsically good and desirabl.
Abraham Maslow’s Philosophy (continued…) A democratic environment is essential to reach potential. Children should be allowed to make many choices for themselves. Parents and teachers play a significant role in preparing children to make wise choice by letting them grow and not by controlling the way they grow.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Source: William G. Huitt, 2000 http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html Motivation increases as needs are met
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1968) Conceptualised individuals as being driven by needs; all needs were hierarchically organised Divided human needs into five levels, with the most pressing needs starting at the base of the hierarchy We must satisfy the lower needs before we can progress and concentrate on obtaining those higher up in the hierarchy; also that the levels develop with age – so that the first levels occur in childhood (need for food, need for safety, etc.) and the others develop throughout the lifespan Higher-level needs are not necessary for survival, so motivation to achieve them is weaker than for more basic needs, e.g. water The final need stage is that of self-actualisation, where an individual seems to know who they are and have little confusion about the route their life should take. Our personality is a tool that we use to gain these needs and attempt to reach this self-actualisation.
Carl Rogers’ Philosophy Rogers focused in learner-centered education. He proposed an educator as a facilitator by establishing a comfortable atmosphere to learner to learn new ideas without being threatened by external factors. Believed that human beings have a natural eagerness to learn. The most significant learning involves changing one’s concept of oneself.
From the Humanistic Perspective …... Teachers are: Less protective of their constructs and beliefs than other teachers. More able to listen to learners, especially to their feelings. Pay as much attention to their relationship with learners as to the content of the course. Apt to accept feedback, both positive and negative and to use it as constructive insight into themselves and their behavior.
From the Humanistic Perspective …... Learners : are encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. Provide much of the input for the learning which occurs through their insight and experiences. Are encouraged to consider that the most valuable evaluation is self-evaluation and that learning needs to focus on factors that contribute to solving significant problems or achieving significant results
Principles of Humanistic Education 5 basic principles of humanistic education are: Student’s learning should be self-directed Schools should produce students who want & know how to learn. Only form of meaningful evaluation is self- evaluation. Feelings, as well as knowledge, are important to the learning process. Students learn best in a non-threatening environment.
Humanistic Education in Practice Characteristics of open classrooms Freedom of choice in study Ability to move freely around classroom Access to wide variety of learning material Emphasis on individual and small group instruction. Relationship with the teacher as a facilitator rather than a lecturer Evaluation about academic achievement that is meaningful to the student.
Strengths of Humanistic Perspective It emphasizes individual choice and responsibility Humanistic psychology satisfies most people’s idea of what means being human, because it values personal ideals and self-fulfillment. Goes to the root of the problem Leads to genuine self-knowledge Respect of patient’s point of view
Criticism of Humanistic Perspective Too simple and unscientific Too vague concepts Fail to offer explicit theory of development Cannot be tested Critics claim that humanistic psychology is not a true science, because it involves too much common sense and not enough objectivity.