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UNIT 3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Mid-twentieth century Theories Humanistic Perspective.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Mid-twentieth century Theories Humanistic Perspective."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Mid-twentieth century Theories Humanistic Perspective

2  Developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers  behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’  focus on conscious forces and self perception  more positive view of basic forces than Freud’s

3 Humanistic Perspective Carl Rogers (1902–1987)Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)

4 EVOLUTION Humanistic psychology emerged in the mid-1950’s and complemented behaviorism and psychoanalysis with its focus on the individual as a whole person. Continued to grow in the second half of the 20 th century

5 Key Features  Emphasizes the study of the whole person.  An individual’s behavior is primarily determined by perception of world around him.  Individuals are not solely the product of their environment  Individuals are internally directed an motivated to fulfill their potential.  Emphasizes the ‘natural desire’ of everyone to learn. Whether this natural desire is to learn whatever it is you are teaching, however, is not clear.

6 According to humanistic psychologists, we are motivated not merely to survive, but to become better and better. This process is called self-actualization.

7 Key components of self-Actualization  Self-understanding  Self fulfillment  Self-realization

8 Humanistic Perspective  Major Theorists  Rogers (√ )  Maslow (√ )  N. V. Peale

9 Abraham Maslow’s Philosophy  Proposed that People have a hierarchy of needs. The goal of psychological growth is to meet the needs to achieve self-actualization.  Personality is shaped by motivation to satisfy a hierarchy of needs.  To understand humans, you must understand their highest aspirations.  Each individual is borne with inner nature and that is shaped by experiences and unconscious thoughts and feelings. Human values are intrinsically good and desirabl.

10 Abraham Maslow’s Philosophy (continued…)  A democratic environment is essential to reach potential.  Children should be allowed to make many choices for themselves.  Parents and teachers play a significant role in preparing children to make wise choice by letting them grow and not by controlling the way they grow.

11 Maslow’s Hierarchy Source: William G. Huitt, 2000 Motivation increases as needs are met

12 Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1968)  Conceptualised individuals as being driven by needs; all needs were hierarchically organised  Divided human needs into five levels, with the most pressing needs starting at the base of the hierarchy  We must satisfy the lower needs before we can progress and concentrate on obtaining those higher up in the hierarchy; also that the levels develop with age – so that the first levels occur in childhood (need for food, need for safety, etc.) and the others develop throughout the lifespan  Higher-level needs are not necessary for survival, so motivation to achieve them is weaker than for more basic needs, e.g. water  The final need stage is that of self-actualisation, where an individual seems to know who they are and have little confusion about the route their life should take. Our personality is a tool that we use to gain these needs and attempt to reach this self-actualisation.

13 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

14 Carl Rogers’ Philosophy  Rogers focused in learner-centered education.  He proposed an educator as a facilitator by establishing a comfortable atmosphere to learner to learn new ideas without being threatened by external factors.  Believed that human beings have a natural eagerness to learn.  The most significant learning involves changing one’s concept of oneself.

15 From the Humanistic Perspective …... Teachers are:  Less protective of their constructs and beliefs than other teachers.  More able to listen to learners, especially to their feelings.  Pay as much attention to their relationship with learners as to the content of the course.  Apt to accept feedback, both positive and negative and to use it as constructive insight into themselves and their behavior.

16 From the Humanistic Perspective …... Learners :  are encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning.  Provide much of the input for the learning which occurs through their insight and experiences.  Are encouraged to consider that the most valuable evaluation is self-evaluation and that learning needs to focus on factors that contribute to solving significant problems or achieving significant results

17 Principles of Humanistic Education  5 basic principles of humanistic education are:  Student’s learning should be self-directed  Schools should produce students who want & know how to learn.  Only form of meaningful evaluation is self- evaluation.  Feelings, as well as knowledge, are important to the learning process.  Students learn best in a non-threatening environment.

18 Humanistic Education in Practice  Characteristics of open classrooms  Freedom of choice in study  Ability to move freely around classroom  Access to wide variety of learning material  Emphasis on individual and small group instruction.  Relationship with the teacher as a facilitator rather than a lecturer  Evaluation about academic achievement that is meaningful to the student.

19 Strengths of Humanistic Perspective  It emphasizes individual choice and responsibility  Humanistic psychology satisfies most people’s idea of what means being human, because it values personal ideals and self-fulfillment.  Goes to the root of the problem  Leads to genuine self-knowledge  Respect of patient’s point of view

20 Criticism of Humanistic Perspective  Too simple and unscientific  Too vague concepts  Fail to offer explicit theory of development  Cannot be tested  Critics claim that humanistic psychology is not a true science, because it involves too much common sense and not enough objectivity.

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