Presentation on theme: "Classroom Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1Classroom Instruction Describe why classroom instruction is an important teacher behavior...Developed by W. Huitt (1999)
2Models of InstructionAs discussed previously, classroom teaching is composed of three separate, but interrelated activities:Activities designed to get ready to interact with students in the classroomPlanning
3Models of InstructionAs discussed previously, classroom teaching is composed of three separate, but interrelated activities:ManagementControlling student behavior
4Models of InstructionAs discussed previously, classroom teaching is composed of three separate, but interrelated activities:Purposely guiding student learningInstruction
5Models of InstructionAs critical as planning and management are to performing competently as a professional educator, quality instruction is absolutely necessary if students are to be successful in learning required content and skills.
6Models of InstructionThere are a variety of ways to define quality instruction.Remember that instructional quality means that the desired goals and objectives have been obtained.
7Models of InstructionJoyce and Weil (1996) describe four different categories of models of instruction:Joyce, B., & Weil, M. (1996). Models of teaching (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Behavioral systems modelsInformation processing modelsPersonal development modelsSocial interaction models
8Behavioral Systems Models The focus of the methods associated with this category is on observable skills and behaviors.
9Behavioral Systems Models Two major models in this category are:Highly structured, teacher-directed; maximization of student learning timeDirect InstructionGiven enough time and quality instruction, nearly all students can master any set of objectivesMastery Learning
10Behavioral Systems Models These methods have generally proved more likely to positively impact scores on standardized tests of basic skills than models in other categories.
11Information Processing Models The focus of the methods associated with information processing approaches are more linked to concepts and principles developed in cognitive psychology.
12Information Processing Models Three major models in this category are:Categorizing information and concept formationConcept AttainmentCausal reasoning, interpretation of data, and formation of principles and theoriesInquiry Training/ Inductive ThinkingIntellectual DevelopmentThe influence of maturity on thinking and reasoning
13Information Processing Models Many of the tests used to measure school learning are being modified so that they consider important mental processing skills that these models are designed to address.
14Personal Development Models The focus of these models is on those outcomes held in high regard by humanistic educators:high self-concept and self-esteem;positive self-direction and independence;creativity and curiosity;the development of affect and emotions.
15Personal Development Models Three major models in this category are:Affective orientation; based on methods of Carl RogersFacilitative teachingFocus is on developing an awareness and fulfillment of individual potentialIncreasing Personal AwarenessFocus on the development and application of creativitySynectics
16Personal Development Models While these models have not demonstrated an ability to impact outcomes associated with traditional education, they do show promise in impacting other outcomes important for the information age.
17Social Interaction Models The models associated with the social interaction family are focused on developing the concepts and skills needed to work in groups.
18Social Interaction Models Two major models in this category are:Working in groups; based on the methods of Slavin and Johnson and JohnsonCooperative LearningStudy and development of social behavior and valuesRole playing
19Social Interaction Models Cooperative learning has demonstrated an ability to impact standard achievement measures as well as group interaction.
20Models of InstructionThe most important point in this discussion of models of instruction is that each has been designed for a specific purpose.When used to obtain that purpose each model has demonstrated some superiority.It is a rare model, such as facilitative teaching or cooperative learning, that adequately addresses purposes of more than one category of models.
21Models of InstructionWhen the purpose of instruction is to have students score well on standardized tests of basic skills, I believe research affirms that:the basic model should be one of direct instruction.techniques developed in the information processing models should be incorporated into this basic model.
22Models of InstructionWhen the purpose of instruction is to have students score well on standardized tests of basic skills, I believe research affirms that:instruction should be delivered using techniques advocated in facilitative teaching.cooperative learning techniques should be incorporated as a part of guided and independent practice.
23Models of InstructionWhen the purpose of instruction is to have students score well on standardized tests of basic skills, I believe research affirms that:if some students are still not meeting academic expectations after these instructional techniques have been successfully implemented, additional time and alternative instructional methods should be provided using mastery learning strategies.
24Models of InstructionIt is critical to recognize that master teacher models, where focus is put on individual teacher competence, demonstrate only MODERATE relationships to student achievement.
25Models of InstructionIt is only through school-based or district-based systematic instruction (i.e., coordinated curriculum and programmatic implementation across grade levels) that STRONG relationships are established between school and/or classroom behavior and student achievement.