Presentation on theme: "Classroom Instruction Describe why classroom instruction is an important teacher behavior... Developed by W. Huitt (1999)"— Presentation transcript:
Classroom Instruction Describe why classroom instruction is an important teacher behavior... Developed by W. Huitt (1999)
Models of Instruction As discussed previously, classroom teaching is composed of three separate, but interrelated activities: Planning Activities designed to get ready to interact with students in the classroom
Models of Instruction As discussed previously, classroom teaching is composed of three separate, but interrelated activities: ManagementControlling student behavior
Models of Instruction As discussed previously, classroom teaching is composed of three separate, but interrelated activities: Instruction Purposely guiding student learning
Models of Instruction As critical as planning and management are to performing competently as a professional educator, quality instruction is absolutely necessary if students are to be successful in learning required content and skills.
Models of Instruction There are a variety of ways to define quality instruction. Remember that instructional quality means that the desired goals and objectives have been obtained.
Models of Instruction Joyce and Weil (1996) describe four different categories of models of instruction: Joyce, B., & Weil, M. (1996). Models of teaching (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Behavioral systems models Information processing models Personal development models Social interaction models
Behavioral Systems Models The focus of the methods associated with this category is on observable skills and behaviors.
Behavioral Systems Models Two major models in this category are: Direct Instruction Highly structured, teacher- directed; maximization of student learning time Mastery Learning Given enough time and quality instruction, nearly all students can master any set of objectives
Behavioral Systems Models These methods have generally proved more likely to positively impact scores on standardized tests of basic skills than models in other categories.
Information Processing Models The focus of the methods associated with information processing approaches are more linked to concepts and principles developed in cognitive psychology.
Information Processing Models Three major models in this category are: Concept Attainment Categorizing information and concept formation Inquiry Training/ Inductive Thinking Causal reasoning, interpretation of data, and formation of principles and theories The influence of maturity on thinking and reasoning Intellectual Development
Information Processing Models Many of the tests used to measure school learning are being modified so that they consider important mental processing skills that these models are designed to address.
Personal Development Models The focus of these models is on those outcomes held in high regard by humanistic educators: high self-concept and self-esteem; positive self-direction and independence; creativity and curiosity; the development of affect and emotions.
Personal Development Models Three major models in this category are: Facilitative teaching Affective orientation; based on methods of Carl Rogers Increasing Personal Awareness Focus is on developing an awareness and fulfillment of individual potential Focus on the development and application of creativity Synectics
Personal Development Models While these models have not demonstrated an ability to impact outcomes associated with traditional education, they do show promise in impacting other outcomes important for the information age.
Social Interaction Models The models associated with the social interaction family are focused on developing the concepts and skills needed to work in groups.
Social Interaction Models Two major models in this category are: Cooperative Learning Working in groups; based on the methods of Slavin and Johnson and Johnson Role playing Study and development of social behavior and values
Social Interaction Models Cooperative learning has demonstrated an ability to impact standard achievement measures as well as group interaction.
Models of Instruction The most important point in this discussion of models of instruction is that each has been designed for a specific purpose. When used to obtain that purpose each model has demonstrated some superiority. It is a rare model, such as facilitative teaching or cooperative learning, that adequately addresses purposes of more than one category of models.
Models of Instruction When the purpose of instruction is to have students score well on standardized tests of basic skills, I believe research affirms that: the basic model should be one of direct instruction. techniques developed in the information processing models should be incorporated into this basic model.
Models of Instruction When the purpose of instruction is to have students score well on standardized tests of basic skills, I believe research affirms that: instruction should be delivered using techniques advocated in facilitative teaching. cooperative learning techniques should be incorporated as a part of guided and independent practice.
Models of Instruction When the purpose of instruction is to have students score well on standardized tests of basic skills, I believe research affirms that: if some students are still not meeting academic expectations after these instructional techniques have been successfully implemented, additional time and alternative instructional methods should be provided using mastery learning strategies.
Models of Instruction It is critical to recognize that master teacher models, where focus is put on individual teacher competence, demonstrate only MODERATE relationships to student achievement.
Models of Instruction It is only through school-based or district- based systematic instruction (i.e., coordinated curriculum and programmatic implementation across grade levels) that STRONG relationships are established between school and/or classroom behavior and student achievement.