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Instructor: Jessica Douglas Lecture 1 Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructor: Jessica Douglas Lecture 1 Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructor: Jessica Douglas Lecture 1 Introduction

2 Census Syllabus Ch. Introduction Lecture Intro Activity Video Student Questions

3 IN THIS CHAPTER The power of maps The spatial order of the world Global climate change Dangerous places Globalization and its discontents The power of place

4 INTRODUCTION A World on Maps Maps in Our Minds Mental Maps Maps in our minds of our activity spaces The Map Revolution Cartographythe making of maps Remote Sensingscanners and cameras on satellites send information to computers on Earth Geographic Information System (GIS)programs allow presentation and analysis of spatial data Geographys Perspective Spatial Perspectivespatial patterns are crucial to how we live and how we organize our societies Space on the Earths surface Organization of that space

5 Environment and Society Relationships between human societies and the natural (physical) environment Humans transforming natural surroundings Humans dependent on the natural environment, behavior a product of that dependence The intersection of social and natural sciences and integrated perspectives from both Spatial Patterns Knowledge of location and distribution of significant features of Earths surface Human and natural worlds Temporal (historical) perspective

6 Scale and Scope Scalerelationship between distance on a map and distance on the ground expressed as a ratio Small-scale mapratio between map distance and real-world distance is very small Operational scalescale at which social or natural processes operate

7 WORLD GEOGRAPHIC REALMS Geographic Realmsglobal neighborhoods possessing particular combinations of environmental, cultural, and organizational properties Criteria Physical and human Functionalinteraction of human societies and natural environments Historicalinteraction over time

8 WORLD GEOGRAPHIC REALMS Boundaries and Transition Zones Natural boundariesoceans and seas Transition zoneswhere two geographic realms meet, no sharp boundaries

9 WORLD GEOGRAPHIC REALMS Two Varieties of Realms Monocentricdominated by a single major political entity, in terms of territory and/or population Example: United States, Mexico, China, India, Russia, Australia Polycentricappearance, functioning, and organization of the realm are dispersed among a number of more or less equally influential regions or countries Example: Europe, North Africa/Southwest Asia, Sub- Saharan Africa, Pacific Realm

10 REGIONS WITHIN REALMS Regional conceptrefined level of spatial classification requiring more specific criteria Regiondevice that allows making spatial generalizations, based on selected criteria to construct them Criteria for Regions Areaspace occupied on Earths surface Boundariesnatures sharp divisions or divisions determined by using specific criteria Locationregions name may give a clue Absolute location latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates Relative locationlocation with reference to other regions

11 Criteria for Regions Homogeneitysameness Formal regionsdisplay measurable and often visible internal homogeneity Regions as systems functional integration (the way they work) Spatial systemsformed by the areal extent of the activities that define them Coreheart, center of activity Hinterlandsurrounding zone of intersection Functional regionforged by a structured, urban- centered system of interaction with a core and a periphery Interconnections All human regions are interconnected GlobalizationParadoxical effect Regions and places become more alike, more homogeneous Contrasts can become stronger

12 THE PHYSICAL SETTING Natural (Physical) Landscapes Natural landscapes mountain chains to coastal plains Influence human activity and movement

13 THE PHYSICAL SETTING Geology and Natural Hazards Continental drift Pangaeasupercontinent that broke up and continues to drift apart Tectonic plateslighter rock continents rest on slabs of heavier rock plates that move by magma circulation cells within the Earth Collision of tectonic plates causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

14 THE PHYSICAL SETTING Geology and Natural Hazards Pacific Ring of Fire Zone of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters that completely encircle the Pacific Ocean

15 Compare Tectonics with Natural Hazards

16 THE PHYSICAL SETTING CLIMATE Ice ageperiods when average temperatures were low, allowing glacial ice to expand toward the equator Cyclical periods Glaciationscold phases with glaciers expanding Interglacialswarm phases with ice receding

17 THE PHYSICAL SETTING Global Climate Change Natural and anthropogenic (human-source) causes or warming or cooling Greenhouse effect Suns radiation becomes trapped in the Earths atmosphere, leading to climate changes Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Predicts a global temperature increase of several degrees with significant regional variability Natural vs. Anthropogenic Climate Change: How has Earths climate changed over time? What causes climate to change? Which form is most relevant to the world now? What can people do to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow global warming?

18 Climatic Regions Weatherimmediate state of the atmosphere in a certain place at a given time Climateaggregate, total record of weather conditions at a place or a region over an entire period during which records have been kept Classifications: Köppens Climatic Regions A climatesequatorial and tropical B climatesdry C climatestemperate D climatescold E climatesfrigid, polar H climateshighlands

19 Climatic Regions AHumid Equatorial Climate High precipitation and temperatures Three A Climates Aftropical rainforest Awtropical savanna Amtropical monsoon Climatic Regions BDry Climate Low precipitation with varying temperature averages Two B Climates BSsemiarid BWarid Climatic Regions CHumid Temperate Climate Mid-latitudes with no temperature extremes Three C Climates Cfno dry season Cwdry season in winter Csdry season in summer

20 Climatic Regions DHumid Cold Climate Continental with temperature extremes Two D Climates Dfno dry season Dwdry season in winter Climatic Regions ECold Polar Climate High latitude, large temperature ranges Two E climates ETtundra EFice HHighland Climate High altitude, large temperature ranges

21 REALMS OF POPULATION World population7.1 billion Occupies less than 30% of Earths surface Major Population Clusters Population distribution every dot represents 100,000 people Population densitynumber of persons per unit area Urbanizationpercentage of the total population living in cities and towns Major Population Clusters South Asiabecame worlds largest cluster in 2010 Centered on India, Pakistan and Bangladesh East Asia Centered on China Europe Europe including western Russia Three clusters account for almost 4 billion people

22 REALMS OF CULTURE Cultural landscape distinctive attributes of a society imprinted on its portion of the worlds physical stage The Geography of Language Languageessence of culture Language families 15 language familiesshared but distant origins - Indo-Europeanmost widely distributed language family - ex. English, French, Spanish, Russian, Persian, Hindi Lingua francacommon second language used in government, commerce, and higher education English primacy a result of colonization and globalization

23 Landscapes of Religion Crucial influence on world civilizations and history Strong connection between realms and religion

24 A WORLD OF STATES 200 countries (states) in the world Statescountries Sovereigntygovernment of a state rules supreme within its borders European state model assumed that state and nation were ideally conterminous Nation-state would enclose an ethnically and culturally homogeneous people within a national boundary

25 A WORLD OF STATES Ideal statedefined as a clearly and legally defined territory inhabited by a citizenry governed from a capital city by a representative government Modern statechallenged From below by ethnic minorities and regional secessionist movements From above through increasingly powerful international organizations

26 A WORLD OF STATES States, Realms, and Regions Realmsassemblage of states Realm boundaries Coincide with boundaries between states Can cut across a state Consist of groups of states whose boundaries mark the limits of the realm

27 A WORLD OF STATES Political Geography Shapes world-scale geographic regions Global boundary framework continues to change

28 GEOGRAPHIES OF DEVELOPMENT Economic Geography focuses on spatial aspects of ways people make their living and the patterns of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services Developmentgauges a states economic, social, and institutional growth

29 GEOGRAPHIES OF DEVELOPMENT Core-Periphery World Core areasplaces of dominance whose inhabitants exerted their power over their surroundings near and far Peripherysustained the core Spatial networksnodes of variable centrality and importance

30 GLOBALIZATION Globalization geographical process in which spatial relations (economic, cultural, political) shift to ever broader scales World is getting ever more interconnected

31 Global Challenges, Shared Interests Global warmingthreat to world Conference on Climate Change (2011) Governments from around the world committed themselves to preparing a comprehensive global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions Developed (including United States) and developing countries included Target date for completing all agreements is 2015 Actual reductions commence in 2020 Global migrationflows create global cultural interaction Transnational migrants

32 Winners and Losers Win International capitalism, open markets, free trade Globalization breaks down barriers to foreign trade, stimulates commerce, brings jobs to remote places, and promotes social, cultural, political, and other kinds of exchanges Lose Uneven development, inequality

33 Gross National Income GNI Total income earned from all goods and services produced by the citizens of a country within or outside its borders during a calendar year Emerging markets World Trade Organization (WTO) Countries must agree to open their economies to foreign trade and investment 154 member-states

34 REGIONAL FRAMEWORK AND GEOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVE Geography is both a social and physical science Types of study: Regional geography borrows information from many sources to create an overall image of the world Systematic geography topical study with a spatial perspective

35 1.Read Textbook Introduction Chapter 2.Intro Activity in class ( Orientation using campus map, Latitude/Longitude assignment) 3.Sign-in sheets will be provided for all future activities; attendance is required for activity credit. 4.Website: 5.Homework: Choose the Field Notes subsection topic in Ch.0 textbook; summarize (1 page) and search the www. link to learn more.

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