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Chapter1- Studying Geography

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1 Chapter1- Studying Geography
Section 1- Themes and Essential Elements What is Geography? Study of everything on Earth, from rocks and rainfall to people and places Study of physical, biological, and cultural features of Earth’s surface Look at how the natural environment influences people, how they affect Earth, and how the world is changing Perspective- the way a person looks at something Use a spatial perspective- looking at where things are and how they are arranged

2 Two main branches: Human and Physical Geography
Human Geography- characteristics of people How we live, work, way of life

3 Physical Geography Focuses on Earth’s natural environments These include earth’s landforms: water features, atmosphere, animals, plants, soils and the processes that affect them

4 Who uses Geography? Everyone, every time we decide where to go and how to get there Subfields of Geography Cartography- study of maps and mapmaking Meteorology- study of weather, forecasting the weather USGS ( US Geological Survey) Produces detailed maps of the whole country

5 How do we study Geography?
Region- is an area with one or more common features that make it different from surrounding areas Cities, states, countries, and continents Defined by their physical and human features Physical features: kinds of climate, river systems, soils, and vegetation Human features: languages, religions and trade networks

6 3 Types of Regions Formal Region- has one or more common features Based on any feature: population, crops, rainfall, etc EX. Rocky Mountains, Browerville, United States Functional Region- places that are linked together as a unit Organized around a central location EX. A city transit system, subway system, Airport Perceptual Region- reflect human feelings and attitudes EX. Back home, Midwest, The South, Up North

7 Five Themes of Geography
Location- exact or relative spot Place- physical and human features of a location

8 Human environment interaction- ways people and environment interrelate with and affect each other
Movement- how people and things change locations and the effects of these changes

9 Region- organizes Earth into geographic areas with one or more shared characteristics

10 Six Essential Elements
The world in spatial terms- use of maps Places and regions- physical and human features Physical systems- Earths features Human Systems- people and their activities Environment and Society- human actions The uses of Geography- helps us understand the relationship among people, places, and environments over time

11 Section 2- Skill building: Using the Geographer’s Tools
The Globe scale model of the earth Grid- circle lines going east and west and north and south Latitude- lines drawn east and west Measures distance north and south of the equator Called parallels Range from 0 (for places on the equator) to 90 N and 90 S for North and South Poles


13 Longitude- lines drawn North and South
Called meridians Measure distance east and west of the prime meridian- imaginary line from the North Pole through Greenwich, England to the South Pole Range from 0 (which are on the prime meridian) to 180 (which is in the mid pacific) Lines west of the prime meridian are labeled W and east of it labeled E The intersection of lat/long lines help us find locations


15 Hemispheres, Continents, and Oceans
Hemispheres- equator divides the globe into halves, north and south Prime meridian divides into western and eastern hemispheres Continents: Earths land surfaces are divided into 7 continents: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America Asia being the largest, Australia being the smallest

16 Map Projections Ways of presenting the round earth on a flat map
Always some distortion, because the earth is round Cylindrical, conic, and flat-plane Cylindrical Projection- as if a cylinder was wrapped around the globe Cylinder only touches globe at the equator

17 Flat-Plane Projection- only touch the globe at one point
Conic Projection- cone placed over the globe Most accurate around the lines of latitude where it touches


19 Understanding Map Elements
Distance Scales- help determine real distance Directional Indicators Compass rose- shows N, S, E, W Legends- or map key Identifies the symbols on a map Ex. Cities, roads, rivers, etc Inset Maps- focus on a smaller part of a larger map Special Purpose Maps Many different kinds of maps Climate or Precipitation maps Population and Economic maps Elevation and Topographic maps Climate Graphs and Population Pyramids Contour Map

20 Climate Map

21 Population Graph Population Pyramid Topographic Map

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