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1 Knowledge Objectives 1.Identify each major link in the communication process. 2.Explain the concept of media richness and the Lengel-Daft contingency.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Knowledge Objectives 1.Identify each major link in the communication process. 2.Explain the concept of media richness and the Lengel-Daft contingency."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Knowledge Objectives 1.Identify each major link in the communication process. 2.Explain the concept of media richness and the Lengel-Daft contingency model of media selection. 3.Explain process and physical barriers to communication 4.Discuss why it is important for managers to know about grapevine communication.

2 2 The Communication Process Communication –The interpersonal transfer of information and understanding from one person to another. A linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback.

3 3 The Communication Process Sender 2 Encoding 1 Meaning 8 Decoding Start (Receiver) Noise 3 Transmission through channels 7 Transmission through channels Noise Receiver (Sender) Numbers are sequential steps 4 Decoding 5 Meaning 6 Encoding

4 4 The Communication Process (cont’d) Encoding –Translating internal thought patterns into a language or code the intended receiver of the message will likely understand and/or pay attention to. Choice of words, gestures, or other symbols for encoding depends on the nature of the message. –Technical or nontechnical –Emotional or factual –Visual or auditory Cultural diversity can create encoding challenges.

5 5 Noise –Noise: any interference with the normal flow of communication. –Understanding decreases as noise increases. –Dealing with noise Make messages more understandable. Minimize and neutralize sources of interference. The Communication Process (cont’d)

6 6 Decoding –Successful decoding depends on the receiver having a willingness to receive the message ability to overcome perceptual “screening in” and “screening out”). knowledge of the language and terminology used in the message. an understanding of the sender’s purpose and background situation. The Communication Process (cont’d)

7 7 Feedback –The choice factors for the form to provide feedback are the same factors governing the encoding process. –Feedback affects the form and content of follow-up communication. –Effective feedback is timely, relevant, and personal. The Communication Process (cont’d)

8 8 Selecting a Medium –Face-to-face conversations –Telephone calls –E-mails –Memorandums –Letters –Computer reports –Photographs Bulletin boards Meetings Organizational publications News releases Press conferences Advertising The Communication Process (cont’d)

9 9 Selecting a Medium (cont’d) –Moving between low- and high-context cultures can create appropriate media selection problems. In low-context cultures, the verbal content of the message is more important than the medium through which it is delivered. In high-context cultures, the context (setting) in which the message is delivered is more important than the literal words of the message. The Communication Process (cont’d)

10 10 A Contingency Approach (Lengel and Daft) –Media richness: a given medium’s capacity to convey information and promote learning. –Characteristics of rich mediums Provide simultaneous multiple information cues. Facilitate immediate feedback. Have a personal focus. –Characteristics of lean mediums Convey limited information (few cues). Provide no immediate feedback. Are impersonal. The Communication Process (cont’d)

11 11 Information Richness of Channels RICH LEAN Information Channel Face-to-face discussion Highest High Moderate Low Lowest Source: Adapted from Daft, Richard L., and Lengel, Robert H. “Information richness: A new approach to managerial behavior and organization design.” In Barry M. Staw and Larry L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 6. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1984, 191–233. Information Richness Telephone conversations Written letters/memos (individually addressed) Formal written documents (unaddressed bulletins or reports) Formal numeric documents (printouts, budget reports)

12 12 Nonverbal Communication Body Language –Nonverbal communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearance. Types of Body Language –Facial –Gestural –Postural Receiving Nonverbal Communication –Awareness of nonverbal cues can give insight into deep-seated emotions.

13 13 Nonverbal Communication (cont’d) Giving Nonverbal Feedback –Nonverbal feedback from authority figures significantly affects employee behavior. –Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations –Sensitivity and cross-cultural training can reduce nonverbal errors when working with individuals from other cultures.

14 14 The Grapevine –The unofficial and informal communication system in an organization Managerial Attitudes Toward the Grapevine –Managers have predominately negative feelings about the grapevine. –The grapevine is more prevalent at lower-levels of the managerial hierarchy. –The grapevine appears to be more influential in larger organizations. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d)

15 15 Coping with the Grapevine –The grapevine cannot be extinguished. –Attempts to stifle the grapevine as likely to stimulate it instead. –Monitoring and officially correcting grapevine information is perhaps the best strategy for coping with the grapevine. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d)

16 16 Upward Communication –The process of encouraging employees to share their feelings and ideas with management. –Options for improving upward communication Formal grievance procedures Employee attitude and opinion surveys Suggestion systems Open-door policy Informal meetings Internet chat rooms Exit interviews

17 17 Barriers to Communication (cont’d) –Semantic Barriers Misinterpretation of the meaning of words and phrases by individuals. –Specialized occupational languages can create communication problems with outsiders. –Psychosocial Barriers Differing backgrounds, perceptions, values, biases, needs, and expectations of individuals can block communications. Communication Problems and Promises in the Internet Age (cont’d)

18 18 Barriers to Communication (cont’d) –Sexist and Racist Communication Progressive and ethical managers are weeding sexist and racist language out of their vocabularies and correspondence to eliminate the demeaning of women and racial minorities. Communication Problems and Promises in the Internet Age (cont’d)

19 19 Becoming a Better Communicator Effective Listening –Tolerate silence; keep listening. –Ask stimulating, open-ended questions. –Encourage the speaker with attentive eye contact, alert posture, and verbal encouragers. –Paraphrase what you have just heard. –Show emotion to show your sympathy with speaker. –Know your biases and prejudices. –Avoid premature judgments. –Summarize by reiterating what the speaker said.

20 20 Communication Problems and Promises in the Internet Age Barriers to Communication –Process barriers Sender barrier Encoding barrier Medium barrier Decoding barrier Receiver barrier Feedback barrier –Physical barriers Devices and distance

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