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Supervision in Organizations

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Presentation on theme: "Supervision in Organizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Supervision in Organizations
Chapter 10 Communicating Effectively

2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to:
Define communication and the communication process. Contrast formal and informal communication. Explain how electronic communication affects the supervisor’s job. List the barriers to effective communication. Describe techniques for overcoming communication barriers List the requirements for active listening. Explain the behaviors necessary for providing effective feedback.

3 Communication defined…
Communication is the process by which people send and receive information: It involves the transfer of meaning which must be understood to be successful 70 % or all our communication efforts are: misunderstood, misinterpreted, rejected, disliked, distorted, or not heard (in the same language, same culture)! 70%

4 What are the most common ways we communicate?
Visual Images Spoken Word Written Word Body Language

5 The Goals of Communications:

6 Message Channels The five message channels Face-to-Face Face-to-group
Telephone Written Third Party

7 The Communication Process
The transferring and understanding of meaning Everything that a manager does involves communication. Once a decision is made, for example, it must be communicated. The best idea, suggestion, or plan cannot take form without communication. For meaning to be transferred and understood, a sender must transmit a message and a receiver must understand the message. Before communication can occur, a sender must have a purpose (message). This message is converted to symbolic form (encoding) and is passed from the sender to a receiver via some medium (channel). The receiver translates the message (decoding) and the result is the transfer of meaning from one person to another. The feedback loop completes this process.

8 Communication Process Terms
Encoding Selecting words and their order for a message by a sender Message A purpose to be conveyed Channel The medium by which a message travels Decoding The translation of a message by a receiver Feedback A verbal or nonverbal response by a receiver to the sender’s message Noise literally, or figuratively, anything that interferes with a message The communication process is a seven-part model: (1) the communication source, (2) the message, (3) encoding, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6) the receiver, and (7) feedback. The source is the sender who converts (encodes) a thought or message into symbolic form. The message is the physical product from the source coding. The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The message is directed to a receiver. The message must be translated (decoded) into a form that the receiver can understand. Then, the receiver provides feedback to the sender that indicates whether the intended message was received. This entire process is susceptible to noise, that is, disturbances that interfere with the transmission of the message.

9 Formal vs. Informal Communication
Communication that addresses task-related issues and tends to follow the organization’s authority chain Examples: Speech Written documents Electronic behavior Informal communication (grapevine) Communication moving in any direction, skips authority levels, and is likely to satisfy social needs

10 Written Versus Verbal Communications
Tangible Verifiable More permanent More precise More care is taken with the written word Verbal Less secure Known receipt Quicker response Consumes less time Quicker feedback Advantages of written communication: Written communications are tangible, verifiable, and permanent. Typically, both the sender and the receiver have a copy of the document. And the written word can be more concise, logical, and relevant than the spoken word. Written messages, however, are time consuming to create. Feedback may be delayed, if it is forthcoming at all. Furthermore, sending a written message does not guarantee that it will be received, read, or understood. The advantages of communicating orally are quick transmission and immediate feedback. Since an oral message often passes through a number of people, however, this method is subject to distortion.

11 Nonverbal Communications
Body language Nonverbal communication cues such as facial expressions, gestures, and other body movements Verbal intonation An emphasis given to word or phrases that conveys meaning Even though it is neither spoken nor written, nonverbal communication can be powerful. The best known areas of nonverbal communication are body language and verbal intonation. Body language refers to gestures, facial expressions, and other movements of the body. Verbal intonation refers to the emphasis someone gives to words or phrases. Oral communication also has a nonverbal component that is likely to carry the greatest impact. As one researcher observed, 55 percent of an oral message is derived from facial expression and physical posture, 38 percent from verbal intonation, and only 7 percent from the actual words used.

12 The Grapevine “The grapevine motto: Good information passes among people fairly rapidly—bad information, even faster!” Grapevine An unofficial channel of communication that is neither authorized nor supported by the organization. We want to share what we know with others, so good news passes between us fairly fast—bad news, even faster. The unofficial communication channel in many organizations, the grapevine, has four characteristics: 1. It is not controlled by management. 2. It is perceived to be a more reliable information source than formal communication channels 3. It is used to serve the self-interests of those people within it. In an open organization, the grapevine can be quite accurate; in an authoritative culture, it may not be accurate, even though it contains some truth. Because the grapevine cannot be stopped, many managers try to use it to their advantage.

13 Grapevine: Rumors Why Rumors Emerge Four purposes of Rumors
Ambiguity being present As a response to situations that are important to us Under conditions that arouse anxiety Four purposes of Rumors Reduce anxiety Make sense of fragmented information Serve as a vehicle to organize groups To signal sender’s status (power)

14 Barriers to Effective Communication
Overcoming Barriers to Effective Communication Lack of Honesty (lying) Credibility gap Language Emotions Listening Habits Lack of Feedback Perception Information Medium Thinking First Use Feedback Taylor Language to the receiver Listen actively Constrain Emotions Watch Nonverbal Cues In addition to the noise that can derail the communication process, there are other communication barriers. Filtering is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver. Selective perception, another barrier, occurs when a person selectively sees or hears communications according to his or her needs, motivations, experiences, background, and personal characteristics. Information overload occurs when a person is exposed to more information than he or she can process. A person’s emotional state when either sending or receiving a message can also cause a barrier to communication. Since the meaning that words carry is dependent on a person’s age, education, and culture, even the words of the message can be a barrier to communication. Finally, communication apprehension can occur when one is required to interact face-to-face.

15 How to Improve Your Communication Effectiveness
Steps for effective Communication: Think First Constrain Emotions Learn to Listen Taylor Language to the Listener Match Words & Actions Use Feedback

16 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness
Step #1: Think First (Focus your message) Plan before you speak Clarify your intent/goals of the communication Inform, persuade, direct, decide… Be specific Be courteous and objective

17 Focus Your Message: Example
Unfocused Message I need it soon. Why are you always late? You need to improve your productivity. Focused Message I need it by 3 p.m. today. I noticed you came to work 10 minutes late everyday this week. I expect you to complete all assigned tasks by the end of the day today.

18 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness
Step #2: Constrain Emotions Emotions can cloud and distort transference of meaning Tip: If emotional, discontinue communication until you have regained composure

19 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness
Step #3: Learn to Listen Actively RECEIVE – concentrate on what is being said (verbally and non verbally) PERCEIVE – paraphrase your understanding DECODE – analyze and explore the situation to gain further understanding RESPOND - Last – not first! Plan before you speak!

20 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness
Step #4: Tailor Language to the Receiver Consider the person/audience to whom the message is directed Simplify language Be specific, use concrete terms Use positive language Use analogies

21 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness
Step #5: Match Words & Action Do what you say you’re going to do Ensure that nonverbal cues match words Nonverbal Eyes Gestures Posture Face indicators

22 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness
Step #6: Use Feedback Ask questions to prevent misunderstanding Example: When you thing that something is missing, ask simple, direct questions to get necessary information

23 Suggestions for Effective Feedback
Focus on specific behavior Keep feedback impersonal Keep feedback goal oriented Make feedback well-timed Ensure understanding Direct negative feedback towards behavior that the receiver can control The following six suggestions can promote more effective feedback. 1. Focus on specific behaviors. Feedback should be specific rather than general. 2. Keep feedback impersonal. Feedback should be descriptive rather than judgmental or evaluative. Focus on the job-related behavior, not the person. 3. Keep feedback goal-oriented. Avoid “dumping” on someone. Keep feedback positive. If you have something negative to say, make sure it is directed toward the receiver’s goals. 4. Make feedback well-timed. Follow behavior with appropriate feedback as soon as possible. But, avoid making feedback prompt for the sake of “promptness” if you have insufficient information or if you are upset. In such cases, “well timed” could mean “somewhat delayed.” 5. Ensure understanding. Keep feedback clear and concise. Remember that successful communication requires that meaning must be not only transferred but also understood. 6. Direct negative feedback toward behavior the recipient can control. Keep feedback relevant and directed to behavior that the receiver can do something about..

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