Presentation on theme: "Communicating in the Internet Age"— Presentation transcript:
1 Communicating in the Internet Age Chapter TwelveCommunicating in the Internet Age
2 Chapter ObjectivesIdentify each major link in the communication process.Explain the concept of media richness and the Lengel-Daft contingency model of media selection.Identify the five communication strategies and specify guidelines for using them.Discuss why it is important for managers to know about grapevine and nonverbal communication.Explain ways in which management can encourage upward communication.
3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) Identify and describe four barriers to communication.List two practical tips for each of the three modern communication technologies ( , cell phones, and videoconferences) and summarize the pros and cons of telecommuting.List at least three practical tips for improving each of the following communication skills: listening, writing, and running a meeting.
4 The Communication Process The interpersonal transfer of information and understanding from one person to anotherA linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback
6 EncodingTranslating internal thought patterns into a language or code the intended receiver of the message will likely understand and/or pay attention toChoice of words, gestures, or other symbols for encoding depends on the nature of the message.Technical or nontechnicalEmotional or factualVisual or auditoryCultural diversity can create encoding challenges.
7 Selecting a Medium Face-to-face conversations Telephone calls E-mails MemorandumsLettersComputer reportsPhotographsBulletin boardsMeetingsOrganizational publicationsNews releasesPress conferencesAdvertising
8 Selecting a Medium (cont’d) Moving between low- and high-context cultures can create appropriate media selection problems.In low-context cultures, the verbal content of the message is more important than the medium through which it is delivered.In high-context cultures, the context (setting) in which the message is delivered is more important than the literal words of the message.
9 A Contingency Approach (Lengel and Daft) Media richness: A given medium’s capacity to convey information and promote learningCharacteristics of rich mediumsProvide simultaneous multiple information cuesFacilitate immediate feedbackHave a personal focusCharacteristics of lean mediumsConvey limited information (few cues)Provide no immediate feedbackImpersonal by nature
10 Figure 12.2: The Lengel-Daft Contingency Model of Media Selection Source: Robert H. Lengel and Richard L. Daft, “The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill,” Academy of Management Executive, 2 (August 1988): 226, 227, exhibits 1 and 2. Reprinted by permission.
11 Decoding Successful decoding depends on the receiver having: A willingness to receive the messageKnowledge of the language and terminology used in the messageAn understanding of the sender’s purpose and background situation
12 FeedbackThe choice factors for the form to provide feedback are the same factors governing the encoding process.Feedback affects the form and content of follow-up communication.Effective feedback is timely, relevant, and personal.
13 Noise Noise is any interference with the normal flow of communication. Understanding decreases as noise increases.To deal with noise:Make messages more understandable.Minimize and neutralize sources of interference.
14 Figure 12.3: Clampitt’s Communication Process Source: Philip G. Clampitt, Robert J. DeKoch, and Thomas Cashman, "A Strategy for Communicating about Uncertainty," ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE, 14 (November 2000): 48. Copyright 2000 by Academy of Management. Reproduced with permission of Academy of Management in the format Textbook via Copyright Clearance Center.
15 Communication Strategies Spray & PrayImpersonal and one-way communications (lectures)Tell & SellA restricted set of messages with explanations for their importance and relevanceUnderscore & ExploreInformation and issues that are keys to organizational success are discussed and explained.
16 Communication Strategies (cont’d) Identify & ReplyResponding to employee concerns about prior organizational communicationsWithhold & UpholdTelling employees only what they need to know when you think they need to know it
17 Communication Strategies (cont’d) Seeking a Middle-Ground Communication StrategyAvoid Spray & Pray and Withhold & Uphold.Use Tell & Sell and Identify & Reply sparingly.Use Underscore & Explore as much as possible.Merging Communication Strategies and Media RichnessManagers need to select the richest medium possible when employing Tell & Sell, Identify & Reply, and Underscore & Explore strategies.
18 The GrapevineThe grapevine is the unofficial and informal communication system in an organization.Words of Caution About the E-Grapevine and “Blogs”Web logs (“blogs,” or online diaries) vastly and instantly extend the reach of the grapevine.Writers of blogs and senders of e-gossip leave electronic trails that may prove embarrassing or worse at a later date.
19 The Grapevine (cont’d) Managerial Attitudes Toward the GrapevineManagers have predominately negative feelings about the grapevine.The grapevine is more prevalent at lower levels of the managerial hierarchy.The grapevine is likely to be more influential in larger organizations.The grapevine can help managers learn how employees truly feel about policies and programs.
20 The Grapevine (cont’d) Coping with the GrapevineThe grapevine cannot be extinguished.Attempts to stifle the grapevine are likely to stimulate it instead.Monitoring and officially correcting grapevine information is perhaps the best strategy for coping with the grapevine.
21 Nonverbal Communication Body LanguageNonverbal communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearanceTypes of Body LanguageFacialGesturalPosturalReceiving Nonverbal CommunicationAwareness of nonverbal cues can give insight into deep-seated emotions.
23 Nonverbal Communication (cont’d) Giving Nonverbal FeedbackNonverbal feedback from authority figures significantly affects employee behavior.Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations.Sensitivity and cross-cultural training can reduce nonverbal errors when working with individuals from other cultures.
24 Upward Communication Upward Communication The process of encouraging employees to share their feelings and ideas with management.Options for improving upward communication:Formal grievance proceduresEmployee attitude and opinion surveysSuggestion systemsOpen-door policyInformal meetingsInternet chat roomsExit interviews
25 Barriers to Communication Process BarriersSender barrierEncoding barrierMedium barrierDecoding barrierReceiver barrierFeedback barrierPhysical BarriersDevices and distance
26 Barriers to Communication (cont’d) Semantic BarriersMisinterpretation of the meaning of words and phrases by individualsSpecialized occupational languages can create communication problems with outsiders.Psychosocial BarriersDiffering backgrounds, perceptions, values, biases, needs, and expectations of individuals can block communications.
27 Barriers to Communication (cont’d) Sexist and Racist CommunicationProgressive and ethical managers are weeding sexist and racist language out of their vocabularies and correspondence to eliminate the demeaning of women and racial minorities.
28 Communicating in the Online Workplace Getting a Handle on and Instant MessagingPut short messages in the subject line.Be sparse with graphics and attachments.Hello! Can We Talk Cell Phone Etiquette?Advantages = mobility and convenienceDisadvantages = distracted drivers and disturbing calls in public places, with the risk of disclosing private information
31 Communicating in the Online Workplace (cont’d) VideoconferencesA live television exchange between people in different locationsCan reduce costly and possibly dangerous travel timeTelecommutingSending work to and from one’s office via a computer modem while working at home
33 Becoming a Better Communicator Effective ListeningTolerate silence; keep listening.Ask stimulating, open-ended questions.Encourage the speaker with attentive eye contact, alert posture, and verbal encouragers.Paraphrase what you have just heard.Show emotion to show your sympathy with the speaker.Know your biases and prejudices.Avoid premature judgments.Summarize by reiterating what the speaker said.
34 Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d) Effective WritingKeep words simple.Don’t sacrifice communication to rules of composition.Write concisely.Be specific.
35 Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d) Purposes of MeetingsFind facts.Solve problems.Pass along information.Categories of MeetingsDaily check-inWeekly tacticalMonthly strategicQuarterly off-site
36 Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d) Conducting MeetingsMeet for a specific purpose.Distribute the agenda in advance of the meeting.Communicate preparation expectations to attendees.Limit attendance to essential personnel.Open with a brief overview; review important items first.Encourage participation but keep to the agenda.Limit use of visual aids.Clarify after-meeting action items.Follow a specific start and end time and follow up.
37 Terms to Understand Communication Media richness Noise Grapevine Body languageUpward communicationExit interviewSemanticsVideoconferenceTelecommuting
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