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Chapter Twelve Communicating in the Internet Age.

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1 Chapter Twelve Communicating in the Internet Age

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 2 Chapter Objectives Identify each major link in the communication process. Explain the concept of media richness and the Lengel-Daft contingency model of media selection. Identify the five communication strategies and specify guidelines for using them. Discuss why it is important for managers to know about grapevine and nonverbal communication. Explain ways in which management can encourage upward communication.

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) Identify and describe four barriers to communication. List two practical tips for each of the three modern communication technologies ( , cell phones, and videoconferences) and summarize the pros and cons of telecommuting. List at least three practical tips for improving each of the following communication skills: listening, writing, and running a meeting.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 4 The Communication Process Communication –The interpersonal transfer of information and understanding from one person to another A linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 5 Figure 12.1: The Basic Communication Process

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 6 Encoding Translating internal thought patterns into a language or code the intended receiver of the message will likely understand and/or pay attention to –Choice of words, gestures, or other symbols for encoding depends on the nature of the message. Technical or nontechnical Emotional or factual Visual or auditory –Cultural diversity can create encoding challenges.

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 7 Selecting a Medium –Face-to-face conversations –Telephone calls – s –Memorandums –Letters –Computer reports –Photographs Bulletin boards Meetings Organizational publications News releases Press conferences Advertising

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 8 Selecting a Medium (cont’d) Moving between low- and high-context cultures can create appropriate media selection problems. –In low-context cultures, the verbal content of the message is more important than the medium through which it is delivered. –In high-context cultures, the context (setting) in which the message is delivered is more important than the literal words of the message.

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 9 A Contingency Approach (Lengel and Daft) Media richness: A given medium’s capacity to convey information and promote learning Characteristics of rich mediums –Provide simultaneous multiple information cues –Facilitate immediate feedback –Have a personal focus Characteristics of lean mediums –Convey limited information (few cues) –Provide no immediate feedback –Impersonal by nature

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 10 Source: Robert H. Lengel and Richard L. Daft, “The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill,” Academy of Management Executive, 2 (August 1988): 226, 227, exhibits 1 and 2. Reprinted by permission. Figure 12.2: The Lengel-Daft Contingency Model of Media Selection

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 11 Decoding Successful decoding depends on the receiver having: –A willingness to receive the message –Knowledge of the language and terminology used in the message –An understanding of the sender’s purpose and background situation

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 12 Feedback The choice factors for the form to provide feedback are the same factors governing the encoding process. Feedback affects the form and content of follow- up communication. Effective feedback is timely, relevant, and personal.

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 13 Noise Noise is any interference with the normal flow of communication. Understanding decreases as noise increases. To deal with noise: –Make messages more understandable. –Minimize and neutralize sources of interference.

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 14 Source: Philip G. Clampitt, Robert J. DeKoch, and Thomas Cashman, "A Strategy for Communicating about Uncertainty," ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE, 14 (November 2000): 48. Copyright 2000 by Academy of Management. Reproduced with permission of Academy of Management in the format Textbook via Copyright Clearance Center. Figure 12.3: Clampitt’s Communication Process

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 15 Communication Strategies Spray & Pray –Impersonal and one-way communications (lectures) Tell & Sell –A restricted set of messages with explanations for their importance and relevance Underscore & Explore –Information and issues that are keys to organizational success are discussed and explained.

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 16 Communication Strategies (cont’d) Identify & Reply –Responding to employee concerns about prior organizational communications Withhold & Uphold –Telling employees only what they need to know when you think they need to know it

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 17 Communication Strategies (cont’d) Seeking a Middle-Ground Communication Strategy –Avoid Spray & Pray and Withhold & Uphold. –Use Tell & Sell and Identify & Reply sparingly. –Use Underscore & Explore as much as possible. Merging Communication Strategies and Media Richness –Managers need to select the richest medium possible when employing Tell & Sell, Identify & Reply, and Underscore & Explore strategies.

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 18 The Grapevine The grapevine is the unofficial and informal communication system in an organization. Words of Caution About the E-Grapevine and “Blogs” –Web logs (“blogs,” or online diaries) vastly and instantly extend the reach of the grapevine. –Writers of blogs and senders of e-gossip leave electronic trails that may prove embarrassing or worse at a later date.

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 19 The Grapevine (cont’d) Managerial Attitudes Toward the Grapevine –Managers have predominately negative feelings about the grapevine. –The grapevine is more prevalent at lower levels of the managerial hierarchy. –The grapevine is likely to be more influential in larger organizations. –The grapevine can help managers learn how employees truly feel about policies and programs.

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 20 The Grapevine (cont’d) Coping with the Grapevine –The grapevine cannot be extinguished. –Attempts to stifle the grapevine are likely to stimulate it instead. –Monitoring and officially correcting grapevine information is perhaps the best strategy for coping with the grapevine.

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 21 Nonverbal Communication Body Language –Nonverbal communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearance Types of Body Language –Facial –Gestural –Postural Receiving Nonverbal Communication –Awareness of nonverbal cues can give insight into deep-seated emotions.

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 22

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 23 Nonverbal Communication (cont’d) Giving Nonverbal Feedback –Nonverbal feedback from authority figures significantly affects employee behavior. –Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations. –Sensitivity and cross-cultural training can reduce nonverbal errors when working with individuals from other cultures.

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 24 Upward Communication –The process of encouraging employees to share their feelings and ideas with management. –Options for improving upward communication: Formal grievance procedures Employee attitude and opinion surveys Suggestion systems Open-door policy Informal meetings Internet chat rooms Exit interviews

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 25 Barriers to Communication Process Barriers –Sender barrier –Encoding barrier –Medium barrier –Decoding barrier –Receiver barrier –Feedback barrier Physical Barriers –Devices and distance

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 26 Barriers to Communication (cont’d) Semantic Barriers –Misinterpretation of the meaning of words and phrases by individuals Specialized occupational languages can create communication problems with outsiders. Psychosocial Barriers –Differing backgrounds, perceptions, values, biases, needs, and expectations of individuals can block communications.

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 27 Barriers to Communication (cont’d) Sexist and Racist Communication –Progressive and ethical managers are weeding sexist and racist language out of their vocabularies and correspondence to eliminate the demeaning of women and racial minorities.

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 28 Communicating in the Online Workplace Getting a Handle on and Instant Messaging –Put short messages in the subject line. –Be sparse with graphics and attachments. Hello! Can We Talk Cell Phone Etiquette? –Advantages = mobility and convenience –Disadvantages = distracted drivers and disturbing calls in public places, with the risk of disclosing private information

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 29

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 30

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 31 Communicating in the Online Workplace (cont’d) Videoconferences –A live television exchange between people in different locations –Can reduce costly and possibly dangerous travel time Telecommuting –Sending work to and from one’s office via a computer modem while working at home

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 32

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 33 Becoming a Better Communicator Effective Listening –Tolerate silence; keep listening. –Ask stimulating, open-ended questions. –Encourage the speaker with attentive eye contact, alert posture, and verbal encouragers. –Paraphrase what you have just heard. –Show emotion to show your sympathy with the speaker. –Know your biases and prejudices. –Avoid premature judgments. –Summarize by reiterating what the speaker said.

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 34 Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d) Effective Writing –Keep words simple. –Don’t sacrifice communication to rules of composition. –Write concisely. –Be specific.

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 35 Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d) Purposes of Meetings –Find facts. –Solve problems. –Pass along information. Categories of Meetings –Daily check-in –Weekly tactical –Monthly strategic –Quarterly off-site

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 36 Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d) Conducting Meetings –Meet for a specific purpose. –Distribute the agenda in advance of the meeting. –Communicate preparation expectations to attendees. –Limit attendance to essential personnel. –Open with a brief overview; review important items first. –Encourage participation but keep to the agenda. –Limit use of visual aids. –Clarify after-meeting action items. –Follow a specific start and end time and follow up.

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Twelve | 37 Terms to Understand Communication Media richness Noise Grapevine Body language Upward communication Exit interview Semantics Videoconference Telecommuting


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