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Supervision in Organizations

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1 Supervision in Organizations
Chapter 9 Providing Effective Leadership

2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to:
Define leader and explain the difference between a leader and a supervisor. Identify the traits that may help you become a successful leader. Define charisma and its key components. Describe the skills of a visionary leader. Differentiate between task-centered and people-oriented leadership styles. Explain situational leadership.

3 Understanding Leadership
Leadership defined… The ability an individual demonstrates to influence others to act in a particular way through direction, encouragement, sensitivity, consideration and support.

4 Supervisors Versus Leaders
“Not all leaders are supervisors, nor are all supervisors leaders.” Supervisors Persons whose influence on others is limited to the appointed authority of their positions to reward and punish. Leaders Persons with managerial and personal power who can influence others to perform actions beyond those that could be dictated by those persons’ formal (position) authority alone. Leadership is an influence process; therefore, leaders are people who, by their actions, encourage a group of people to move toward a common or shared goal. A leader is an individual; leadership is the function that the individual performs. Individuals within an organization who have authority are often referred to as leaders, regardless of how they act in their jobs. But, just because someone is supposed to be a formal leader in an organization, he or she may or may not exercise leadership. In fact, informal or emergent leaders can exhibit leadership even though they do not hold formal leadership positions. Harvard’s John Kotter compares management and leadership. Management, he says, is about dealing with complexity: drawing formal plans, designing organizational structures, and monitoring outcomes. Leadership, in contrast, is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a vision; then they communicate this vision to people and inspire them to overcome obstacles. Robert House of the Wharton School of Business concurs and says that mangers use formal authority to obtain compliance from organizational members. Management consists of implementing the vision and strategy provided by leaders, coordinating and staffing the organization, and handling day-to-day problems. While both management and leadership promote organizational effectiveness, most companies are over-managed and under-led.

5 Trait Theories Of Leadership
Theories that attempt to isolate characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders Attempts to identify traits that always differentiate leaders from followers and effective leaders from ineffective leaders have failed. Attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership have been more successful. The search for characteristics that would differentiate leaders from nonleaders occupied the early psychologists who studied leadership. But research efforts at isolating these traits were not successful. However, attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership have been more successful. Using traits alone to identify leaders will not be sufficient, however, because this method ignores situational factors. While possession of the appropriate traits makes it more likely that an individual will be an effective leader, he or she still has to take the right actions. And what is right in one situation may not be right in another.

6 Six Traits That Differentiate Leaders from Nonleaders
The following are six traits on which leaders differ from nonleaders: 1. Drive and ambition 2. Desire to lead and influence others 3. Honesty and integrity 4. Self-confidence 5. Intelligence 6. In-depth technical knowledge related to their responsibilities

7 Charismatic Leadership
Charismatic leader defined… An individual with a compelling vision or sense of purpose, an ability to communicate that vision in clear terms that followers can understand, a demonstrated consistency and focus in pursuit of the vision, and an understanding of his or her own strengths. Charismatic leadership theory asserts that followers attribute extraordinary or heroic abilities to persons who exhibit the following behaviors: extremely high confidence, dominance, and strong convictions. Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N. Kanguno at McGill University conducted a comprehensive analysis of charismatic leadership qualities. They propose that a charismatic leader has an idealized goal and a strong personal commitment to the goal. Moreover, this leader is unconventional, self-assured, assertive—an agent of radical change rather than a guardian of the status quo.

8 Charismatic Leadership
A charismatic leader influences followers by: Stating a vision that provides a sense of community by linking the present with a better future. Communicating high expectations and expressing confidence that followers can attain them. Conveying, through words and actions, a new set of values, and by his or her behavior setting an example for followers to imitate. Making self-sacrifices and engaging in unconventional behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision. Charismatic leaders often emerge during times of crisis or massive change in business, politics, religion, or war. However, once the crisis is over, a charismatic leader may become a liability because overwhelming self-confidence and unconventional behavior can interfere with day-to-day business operations.

9 Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
Idealized goal Ability to help others understand the goal Strong convictions about the goal Behavior that is unconventional Assertive and self-confident High self-monitoring Appearance as a change agent The following characteristics appear to differentiate Charismatic leaders from non-charismatic leaders: 1. Self-confidence. They have complete confidence in themselves. 2. Vision. They have an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. 3. Ability to articulate the vision. They clarify and state the vision in understandable terms. 4. Strong convictions about the vision. They are perceived as being willing to risk their personal well-being and engage in self-sacrifice for the sake of their vision. 5. Behavior that is out of the ordinary. Their behavior is considered novel, unconventional, or counter to norms. 6. Appearance as a change agent. They are perceived as agents of radical change, not keepers of the status quo. 7. Environmental sensitivity. They make realistic assessments of the constraints and resources needed to bring about change.

10 Visionary Leadership “A vision should create enthusiasm, bringing energy and commitment to the organization.” The key properties of a vision are inspirational possibilities that are value centered, realizable, and have superior imagery and articulation. Visionary leadership The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future that grows out of and improves upon the present Visionary leadership requires the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision that grows out of and improves upon the present. This vision almost “jump-starts the future by calling forth the skills, talents, and resources to make it happen.” A vision is not a dream. It is a reality that has not come to pass. Unlike a mission statement that conveys purpose but not direction, a vision offers means as well as ends. While goals point to a desired end, they are often value-neutral. A vision contains values and the actions needed to achieve the desired result.

11 Skills of Visionary Leaders
The ability to explain the vision to others. Make the vision clear in terms of required actions and aims through clear oral and written communication. (Ronald Reagan – return to happier & prosperous times) The ability to express the vision not just verbally but through the leader’s behavior. Behaving in ways that continually convey and reinforce the vision. (Herb Keller – SW Airlines) The ability to extend the vision to different leadership contexts. Sequencing activities so the vision can be applied in a variety of situations Visionary leaders have three qualities: First, they can explain the vision to others. Second, they express the vision not only verbally but also by their behavior. Third, they can extend the vision to different leadership contexts. The key properties of a vision are inspirational possibilities that are value-centered, realizable, and conveyed with superior imagery and articulation. A vision that does not propose a future that is clearly better for the organization is likely to fail. In a survey of 1,500 senior leaders, 870 of the CEOs from twenty different countries chose a “strong sense of vision” as the dominant characteristic for a CEO in the year Not everyone is so enthusiastic. Robert Eaton, CEO of Chrysler, believes that the concept is vague and wants Chrysler people to focus of quantifiable short-term results. The debate can be reconciled by recognizing that visionary leadership must be supported by detailed plans.

12 Development of the following skills:
How to Become a Leader Development of the following skills: Technical skills (ability to assist others) Tools, procedures, and techniques that are unique to your specialized situation Conceptual skills (anticipate the future) Ability to think in the abstract, analyze info, and make connections between the data Networking skills Socialize and interact with outsiders Human relation skills (people skills) Work with, understand, and motivate other around you

13 The Ohio State Studies Studies that sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior Task-centered leader People-centered leader The most comprehensive of the behavioral theories resulted from research that began at Ohio State in These researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior and discovered that two categories (initiating structure and consideration) accounted for most of the behavior of leaders. Initiating structure includes behavior that attempts to organize work, goals, and work relationships. The leader who is high in initiating structure could be described in terms such as “assigns group members to particular tasks,” or “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.” Consideration includes concern for the comfort, status, satisfaction, and well-being of subordinates. A leader who is high in consideration helps subordinates with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, and treats all subordinates as equals.

14 Task-centered leadership
Task-centered leadership defined… An individual with a strong tendency to emphasize the technical or task aspects of a job Ensures compliance with rules, regulations, and production goals Example: Autocratic Leader (taskmaster) Leaves no doubt as to who’s in charge, and who has the authority and power in the group

15 People-Centered People-centered leader defined… Example:
Emphasizes interpersonal relations with those he or she leads. (preferred by today’s workforce) Takes personal interest in needs of his/her employees Example: Participative leadership style Leadership style of an individual that seeks input from followers for many of the activities in the organization Perspective #1: Consultative-participative leadership Obtain input, but makes final decision Perspective #2: Democratic-participative leadership Obtain input and decision is made by the group

16 Situational Leadership
Situational leadership theory (Hersey & Blanchard) Leaders should adjust (high-self monitors) their leadership styles—telling, selling, participating, and delegating—in accordance with the readiness of their followers. New leadership model and getting much attention. Acceptance: Leader effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader. Readiness: a follower’s ability and willingness to perform. At higher levels of readiness, leaders respond by reducing control over and involvement with employees. The situational leadership model developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard reflects how leaders should adjust their leadership styles according to the readiness of their followers. As a reflection of how willing and able a follower is to complete a task, Hersey and Blanchard have identified four stages of readiness: 1. A follower is both unable and unwilling to do a job. 2. A follower is unable to do the job but willing to perform necessary tasks. 3. A follower is able to do the job but unwilling to be told what to do. 4. A follower is both able and willing to do the job.

17 Situational Leadership

18 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership® Model
Situational leadership uses the same two dimensions identified by Fiedler: task and relational behaviors. However, Hersey and Blanchard assert that either dimension may be high or low and that they can be combined into four styles of leadership: 1. Telling (high task-low relationship). The leader defines roles and tells employees what, how, when, and where to do various tasks. 2. Selling (high task-high relationship). The leader provides both directive and supportive behaviors. 3. Participating (low task-high relationship). The leader and follower share in decision making; the leader’s main roles are facilitating and communicating. 4. Delegating (low task-low relationship). The leader provides little direction or support. Hersey and Blanchard’s four leadership styles closely parallel the four “corners” of Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid. Downplaying the similarities, Hersey and Blanchard say that while the managerial grid measures concern for people and production, their situational leadership model emphasizes task and relationship behavior. Exhibit 11.7 Source: Reprinted with permission from the Center for Leadership Studies. Situational Leadership® is a registered trademark of the Center for Leadership Studies, Escondido, California. All rights reserved.

19 Situational Leadership
R1 (Telling) Employee does not know how to do a job function R2 (Selling) Employee questions why certain things have to be done a certain way R3 (Participative Leadership) Employee has become the expert on the job and no longer needs to be told what to do R4 (Delegating) Employee has gained trust and needs to be left alone. Assign tasks and let him/her do the taks

20 Credibility & Trust Credibility Trust
Employees judge credibility in terms of: Honesty Competence Ability to inspire Trust The belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader

21 Five Dimensions of Trust
Integrity Honesty and truthfulness Competence Technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills Consistency Reliability, predictability, and good judgment Loyalty Willingness to protect and save face for a person Openness Willingness to share ideas and information freely Trust is a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically. The phrase positive expectation assumes knowledge and familiarity about the other party. Trust, therefore, is a history-dependent process based on relevant but limited samples of evidence. Trust takes time to form, building incrementally and accumulating. The term opportunistically refers to risk and vulnerability in any trusting relationship. Trust is not actually taking risks; rather, it is the willingness to do so. An absence of trust does not imply distrust; so you can have neutral situations where there is an absence of trust but no expectations of opportunistic behavior. The key dimensions of trust are as follows: 1. Integrity refers to honesty and truthfulness. This dimension seems to be the most critical when someone assesses the trustworthiness of another. 2. Competence reflects an individual’s technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge. 3. Consistency relates to reliability, predictability, and judgment in handling situations. 4. Loyalty is the willingness to protect and save face for another person. 5. Openness is the final dimension. Can you rely on the person to give the full truth?

22 The Challenge of Team Leadership
Becoming an effective team leader requires: Learning to share information. Developing the ability to trust others. Learning to give up authority. Knowing when to leave their teams alone and when to intercede. New roles that team leaders take on Managing the team’s external boundary Facilitating the team process Leadership is increasingly taking place within the context of teams. The role of a team leader differs from the traditional leadership role performed by first-line supervisors. Even the most capable managers have trouble transitioning from a traditional command-and-control style to a team leadership style. The challenge, then, is to learn how to become an effective team leader. Research has shown that team leaders assume certain common responsibilities: coaching, facilitating, handing disciplinary problems, reviewing performance, training, and communication. Many of these responsibilities apply to managers in general. A better way to describe the team leader’s job is to focus on two priorities: managing the team’s external boundary and facilitating the team process.

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