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Explain why the study of leadership is so complicated and identify some of the various debates about the study of leadership Describe the different theories of leadership that have emerged from the study of individual readers Describe how leaders are influenced by followers and describe the theories of leadership that have been derived from analyzing the leader-follower dynamic Explain how the situational context influences the exercise of leadership © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
The Leader: Who is a Leader? Traits and SkillsExplained leadership by examining the traits and characteristics of individuals considered to be historically great leaders “Great Man” theory Tries to reveal a set of universal traits and skills that are relevant in all leadership situations Traits-based leadership theory Self-confidence Initiative Risk taking Persistence High level of physical energy Motivation to complete tasks Common leadership traits © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Leadership Skills Cognitive skills Technical skillsA leader’s ability to understand the internal and external environments, make decisions with sound reasoning, and communicate effectively Cognitive skills A leader’s knowledge about an organization and job-related activities Technical skills A leader’s ability to interact with others Interpersonal skills The core values and fundamental beliefs that drive behavior in variable situations Character © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Task-oriented behavior Relations-oriented behaviorLeadership Style The pattern of behaviors that leaders use in situations Behaviors that prioritize the accomplishment of a task in an efficient and reliable way Task-oriented behavior Behaviors that prioritize interpersonal relationships, the value of workers as humans, and a strong commitment to the unit and its mission Relations-oriented behavior © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Figure 12.1 - The Managerial Grid© South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
The Charismatic LeaderIndividuals who arouse strong followership through inspirational visions and/or compelling personal attributes Charismatic leaders Exhibit extreme self-confidence about their values Possess willingness to take personal risks Have a strong moral conviction to exercise their power positively Communicate vision through powerful imagery, symbolism, and metaphor Patterns in charismatic leaders © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Transformational Leadership TheoryThe set of behaviors that leaders use to transform, or change, their organization and individuals for the better Transformational leadership Charisma and vision Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Components of transformational leadership © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Transactional Leadership TheoryThe process of a leader providing something the subordinates want Transactional leadership Contingent reward Active management-by-exception Passive management-by-exception Components of transactional leadership © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Components of Transactional LeadershipThe exchange process between leaders and followers in which leaders offer rewards to subordinates in exchange for their services Contingent reward A method of leadership done passively or actively that describes when leaders should intervene to increase a subordinate’s effort to meet standards Management-by-exception © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Leader-Member Exchange TheoryA method of leadership in which leaders treat each member differently, and as a result, develop unique relationships with each member Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory In-groups Out-groups Favored subordinates Favored subordinates who are assigned more interesting tasks, given greater responsibility and authority, and receive more tangible rewards and more resources Subordinates who are expected to simply comply with formal rules and do what is required of them; as a result, they receive the standard benefits of the job © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
The LMX Relationship Life Cycle: The Role-Making ProcessPhases in which a leader and follower undergo a process that dictates whether followers become part of the in-group or out-group Stranger phase - Leaders and subordinate interactions are formal and based on organizational policies 1 Acquaintance phase - When a leader offers the subordinate a chance to increase his or her responsibility in the group and the subordinate must accept the new role 2 Mature partnership phase - Leaders and followers develop strong mutual trust, respect, and obligation 3 © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
The Leader, the Followers, and the SituationLeaders are more effective depending on the favorability of a leadership situation, which is described by leader-member relations, task structure, and positional power of the leader Fiedler contingency model Leader-member relations Quality of relationships between leaders and followers Task structure Extent to which standard procedures are in place to complete a task Positional power Extent to which a leader has authority to evaluate performance and administer rewards or punishments © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational TheoryLeaders have the flexibility and range of skills to adapt their leadership behavior. This type of leadership is based on the interplay of: Situational leadership theory The amount of task-related behaviors a leader exhibits 1 The amount of relationship-related behaviors a leader exhibits 2 The level at which followers are mature enough to perform a specific task, function, or objective 3 © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Figure 12.2 - Leadership Styles Mapped to Subordinates’ Characteristics© South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
House’s Path-Goal TheoryThe most important aspect in leadership is the follower’s expectation that a task can be accomplished and that it will lead to rewards Path-goal theory of leadership Task characteristics Leader behaviors Subordinates’ characteristics Structured or unstructured Repetitive or diverse Simple or complex Directive Participative Supportive Achievement- oriented Preferences for structure Desire for control Confidence in ability © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Leadership Substitutes and NeutralizersAspects of a situation that make leadership unnecessary Substitutes Aspects of a situation that hinder a leader’s ability to act a particular way Neutralizers © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
KEY TERMS Character Charismatic leaders Cognitive skills Contingent reward Fiedler contingency model “Great Man” theory Interpersonal skills Leader-member exchange theory Leadership neutralizers Leadership style Leadership substitutes Management-by-exception Managerial grid Path-goal theory of leadership Relationship life cycle Relations-oriented behavior Situational leadership Task-oriented behavior Technical skills Traits-based leadership theory Transactional leadership Transformational leadership © South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
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