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From Republic To Empire

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Presentation on theme: "From Republic To Empire"— Presentation transcript:

1 From Republic To Empire
SS.A.2.4.5; SS.B.2.4.1; SS.B.1.4.4

2 The Power of the Senate “Fortune began to grow cruel…for greed destroyed honor, integrity and all other noble qualities”~Sallust, 133 B.C. 200 BC: All power lies with the Senate Most senators=rich land owners/families Directed wars Controlled domestic & foreign policy Controlled $

3 Inequality & Unrest Most land owned by rich
Small farmers forced to cities; poor Poor masses growing angry Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, try to help, ask Council of the Plebes to pass land reforms Take land from rich, give to poor Reforms anger Senate, Senators kill Gracchus brothers

4 Military Fills In Gaps

5 New Roll For Roman Military
Early Roman army=small land owners Marius (consul of Rome in 107 BC) begins recruiting from city’s poor, no land These new volunteers swore loyalty to Marius, not Rome/Senate- no gov. control To get land for army vets, Generals now involved in politics, Gen=power Gens Sulla & Marius fight civil war Sulla takes control of Rome (82 BC), and after killing all opposition, restores power to Senate

6 Marius & Sulla

7 Collapse of the Republic
82-31 BC: 50 years of Civil War Crassus, Pompey & Julius Caesar rise First triumvirate Crassus dies in battle, Senate decides Pompey should be only ruler Caesar refuses to give up power, brings army across Rubicon River, attack Rome Pompey dies, Caesar only ruler left 45 BC: Caesar=dictator; assassinated 44 BC

8 Julius Caesar

9 Caesar’s Legacy Increased Senate to 900 members Gave land to poor
New calendar—Julian Calendar New buildings in Rome Running water for all Triumphs: public parties marking his military victories

10 Caesar’s Empire; 44 B.C.

11 Monument to Caesar

12 Caesar, Protector of Rome

13 The Julian Calendar Ianuarius 31 Februarius 28 Martius 31 Aprilis 30
Maius 31 Iunius 30 Quintilis (Iulius) 31 Sextilis (Augustus) 31 September 30 October 31 November 30 December 31 Intercalaris 0 Total: 365 days Leap year rather than Intercalaris

14 Second Triumvirate After Caesar’s death; Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus—after few years, Lep out Caesar Octavian vs. Marc Antony 31 BC: Octavian crushes joint army of Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide At age 32, Octavian alone rules Roman Empire—changes name to Caesar Augustus (Age of Augustus: 31 BC-AD 14)

15 Hail, Caesar Augustus!

16 Do Now: Section Review Read Chapter 5, Section 2 (156-162)
Turn to page 162, write and answer questions 1, 2, 4, 5 & 7

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