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From Republic To Empire SS.A.2.4.5; SS.B.2.4.1; SS.B.1.4.4.

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Presentation on theme: "From Republic To Empire SS.A.2.4.5; SS.B.2.4.1; SS.B.1.4.4."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Republic To Empire SS.A.2.4.5; SS.B.2.4.1; SS.B.1.4.4

2 The Power of the Senate “Fortune began to grow cruel…for greed destroyed honor, integrity and all other noble qualities”~Sallust, 133 B.C. “Fortune began to grow cruel…for greed destroyed honor, integrity and all other noble qualities”~Sallust, 133 B.C. 200 BC: All power lies with the Senate 200 BC: All power lies with the Senate Most senators=rich land owners/families Most senators=rich land owners/families Directed wars Directed wars Controlled domestic & foreign policy Controlled domestic & foreign policy Controlled $ Controlled $

3 Inequality & Unrest Most land owned by rich Most land owned by rich Small farmers forced to cities; poor Small farmers forced to cities; poor Poor masses growing angry Poor masses growing angry Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, try to help, ask Council of the Plebes to pass land reforms Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, try to help, ask Council of the Plebes to pass land reforms Take land from rich, give to poor Take land from rich, give to poor Reforms anger Senate, Senators kill Gracchus brothers Reforms anger Senate, Senators kill Gracchus brothers

4 Military Fills In Gaps

5 New Roll For Roman Military Early Roman army=small land owners Early Roman army=small land owners Marius (consul of Rome in 107 BC) begins recruiting from city’s poor, no land Marius (consul of Rome in 107 BC) begins recruiting from city’s poor, no land These new volunteers swore loyalty to Marius, not Rome/Senate- no gov. control These new volunteers swore loyalty to Marius, not Rome/Senate- no gov. control To get land for army vets, Generals now involved in politics, Gen=power To get land for army vets, Generals now involved in politics, Gen=power Gens Sulla & Marius fight civil war Gens Sulla & Marius fight civil war Sulla takes control of Rome (82 BC), and after killing all opposition, restores power to Senate Sulla takes control of Rome (82 BC), and after killing all opposition, restores power to Senate

6 Marius & Sulla

7 Collapse of the Republic BC: 50 years of Civil War BC: 50 years of Civil War Crassus, Pompey & Julius Caesar rise Crassus, Pompey & Julius Caesar rise First triumvirate First triumvirate Crassus dies in battle, Senate decides Pompey should be only ruler Crassus dies in battle, Senate decides Pompey should be only ruler Caesar refuses to give up power, brings army across Rubicon River, attack Rome Caesar refuses to give up power, brings army across Rubicon River, attack Rome Pompey dies, Caesar only ruler left Pompey dies, Caesar only ruler left 45 BC: Caesar=dictator; assassinated 44 BC 45 BC: Caesar=dictator; assassinated 44 BC

8 Julius Caesar

9 Caesar’s Legacy Increased Senate to 900 members Increased Senate to 900 members Gave land to poor Gave land to poor New calendar—Julian Calendar New calendar—Julian Calendar New buildings in Rome New buildings in Rome Running water for all Running water for all Triumphs: public parties marking his military victories Triumphs: public parties marking his military victories

10 Caesar’s Empire; 44 B.C.

11 Monument to Caesar

12 Caesar, Protector of Rome

13 The Julian Calendar Ianuarius31 Ianuarius31 Februarius28 Februarius28 Martius31 Martius31 Aprilis30 Aprilis30 Maius31 Maius31 Iunius30 Iunius30 Quintilis (Iulius) 31 Quintilis (Iulius) 31 Sextilis (Augustus) 31 Sextilis (Augustus) 31 September30 September30 October31 October31 November30 November30 December31 December31 Intercalaris0 Intercalaris0 Total: 365 days Total: 365 days Leap year rather than Intercalaris Leap year rather than Intercalaris

14 Second Triumvirate After Caesar’s death; Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus—after few years, Lep out After Caesar’s death; Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus—after few years, Lep out Caesar Octavian vs. Marc Antony Caesar Octavian vs. Marc Antony 31 BC: Octavian crushes joint army of Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt 31 BC: Octavian crushes joint army of Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide At age 32, Octavian alone rules Roman Empire—changes name to Caesar Augustus (Age of Augustus: 31 BC-AD 14) At age 32, Octavian alone rules Roman Empire—changes name to Caesar Augustus (Age of Augustus: 31 BC-AD 14)

15 Hail, Caesar Augustus!

16 Do Now: Section Review Read Chapter 5, Section 2 ( ) Turn to page 162, write and answer questions 1, 2, 4, 5 & 7


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