6 American vs Soviet Concerns AMERICAN VIEWSOVIET VIEWECONOMICCapitalistConcerned about economic problemsPromote Democracy + free enterpriseSECURITYConcerned about being invaded twice in less than 30 years by the Germans = keep Germany weak and create buffer states (satellite nations)Communism = superior economic system
7 Yalta Conference The facts… When: February 1945 Who: Review: #15The facts…When: February 1945Who:RooseveltChurchillStalinWhere: Soviet resort, Yalta
8 Yalta Conference cont. ISSUES DISCUSSED Poland Soviets encouraged for a Polish Communist gov’tRoosevelt and Churchill argued that government should be freeStalin argued that Polish government had to be friendly with Soviet UnionCompromise = Soviet Union would set up government but would include non-communist members from pre-war governmentDeclaration of Liberated EuropeAll agreed to issue Declaration of Liberated EuropeDeclaration = gave the people the right to create democratic institutions of their choice as soon as they can through free electionsPromised to put temporary government that represented all democratic elements
9 Yalta Conference cont. ISSUES DISCUSSED cont. Dividing Germany Into 4 zonesUnited StatesGreat BritainFranceUSSRAlso divided Berlin into 4 zonesStalin still wanted to weaken Germany economically and to pay heavy reparationsFDR agreed but insisted Germany to pay based on the country’s ability to payFDR and Stalin agreed Germany would pay reparations with trade goods and products instead of cashAllies allowed to remove industrial machinery, railroad cars, and other equipment from Germany as reparations
10 Yalta Conference Result Arguments about reparations and economic policy continuedTensions between United States and Soviet Union increasedAfter the conference…Soviet Union pressured King of Romania into appointing a Communist governmentUnited States accused Soviets of violating Declaration of Liberated EuropeSoon after… Soviet Union refused to allow more than 3 non-communist Poles to serve in 18 member governmentSoviet Union had no indication to hold free elections in Poland as promisedApril 1, 1945 – FDR informed Soviets that their actions were not acceptable11 days later, FDR diedTruman becomes President
11 Truman Takes ControlReview: #43He was strongly anticommunist and suspicious of StalinBelieved WWII started because Great Britain tried to appease Hitler – did not want to make the same mistake10 days after taking office, Truman met with Soviet Foreign Minister MolotovBrought up issue of PolandDemanded that Stalin hold free elections as promised at YaltaMolotov reported back to StalinMEETING CREATED IMPORTANT SHIFT IN SOVIET- AMERICAN RELATIONSWhy??
12 Potsdam Conference The facts… When: July 1945 Who: Where: Potsdam Review: #9The facts…When: July 1945Who:TrumanAttleeStalinWhere: Potsdamnear Berlin
13 Potsdam Conference cont. Truman and Stalin believed in reparations from GermanyTruman wanted Germany’s industry recovered so that the country’s economy could reviveGermany’s strong economy = could help the rest of Europe recover and Germany would turn away from communismStalin opposed wanted Germany to pay more reparations than the other zones wantedTruman suggests Stalin to take reparations from the Soviet zone while the allied zones would allow their economy to reviveStalin opposed Soviet zone was mostly agricultureCould not provide all the reparations that Soviets wantedTo get Soviets to accept deal, Truman offered Stalin small amount of German industrial equipment from other zones and agree to accept new German- Polish borderIn return, Stalin would have to pay part of it with food shipments from the Soviet zone
14 Potsdam Conference cont. Did Stalin agree to these terms?Stalin STILL disagreedBUT – Truman learned something while at PotsdamThe U.S. successfully tested the atomic bombTruman told Stalin about the testStalin suspected Truman was trying to bully him into the dealAnd suspected that Americans were trying to limit reparations to keep Soviets weakNevertheless… Stalin had to accept the dealUS and Great Britain troops controlled German’s industrial heartland = Soviets had to cooperate in order to get reparations
15 Potsdam Conference Result End of conference marked more tensions between Soviets and the AmericansFurther paving way to Cold War
16 The Iron Curtain Descends Soviets refused to make stronger commitments to uphold Declaration of Liberated Europe after PotsdamSoviet army in east Europe ensured a pro-Soviet Communist government to be established inPolandRomaniaHungaryCzechoslovakiaThese became the satellite nations that buffered the Soviet Union from GermanyNations were not under direct Soviet controlBUT had to remain communist and friendly to Soviet Union AND follow policies Soviets approved of
17 Winston ChurchillMarch 5, 1946 – After seeing the Soviet Union takeover Eastern Europe, Churchill gave a speech“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and Eastern Europe… All are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence, but to a very high increasing measure of control from Moscow.”Iron Curtain – separating the communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West, marking end of WWII and beginning of the Cold War
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