Presentation on theme: "Operant Conditioning Big Question: Is the organism learning associations between events that it does not control (classical) OR is it learning associations."— Presentation transcript:
Operant Conditioning Big Question: Is the organism learning associations between events that it does not control (classical) OR is it learning associations between its behavior and resulting events (operant) Module 19
Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) Introduced the “Law of Effect” Behaviors with favorable consequences will occur more frequently. Behaviors with unfavorable consequences will occur less frequently. Developed into Operant Conditioning Created puzzle boxes for research on cats
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior The frequency will if the consequence is reinforcing to the subject. The frequency will if the consequence is not reinforcing to the subject.
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning. Devised ways to apply these principles in the real world. Designed the Skinner Box. (operant box)
Reinforcement v Punishment Reinforcement - Any consequence that increases the likelihood of the behavior to be repeated. Punishment - Any consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior to be repeated.
Operant Conditioning Activity: Positive Reinforcement Get in groups of three. Choose who will be the recorder, the experimenter, and the subject. Subjects please leave the room for a moment. Directions……
2. Negative Reinforcement Anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state Something the subject doesn’t like is removed Will strengthen the behavior (Definition of Reinforcement) OR X X
Positive/Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement-any condition that follows and strengthens a response. Getting a hug Receiving a paycheck Food, money, sex Attention, praise, smile Negative Reinforcement- subtraction of the unpleasant stimulus Fastening a seatbelt to turn off beeping. Pushing snooze button will silence your annoying alarm. Use umbrella to avoid getting wet.
II.Ways of Reinforcement: A. Primary v Secondary
A. 1. Primary Reinforcement Something that is naturally reinforcing Examples: food, warmth, water, etc. The item is reinforcing in and of itself
A. 2. Secondary Reinforcement Something that a person has learned to value or finds rewarding because it is paired with a primary reinforcer Money is a good example Cooking utensil
II. Ways of Reinforcement B. Shaping Step by step reinforcement of behaviors that are more and more similar to the one you want to occur. (Progress Reports, etc) Technique used to establish a new behavior
II. Ways of Reinforcement: C. Immediate v Delayed
C. Immediate/Delayed Reinforcement Immediate reinforcement is more effective than delayed reinforcement- however humans will respond to delayed reinforcement better than animals. Ability to delay gratification predicts higher achievement
II.Ways of Reinforcement D. Schedules of Reinforcement: 1. Continuous Reinforcement
D. 1. Continuous reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct response Most useful way to establish a behavior. The behavior will extinguish quickly once the reinforcement stops.
D. 2. Partial Reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responses-initial learning is slower but there is a greater resistance to extinction. Includes the following types: –Fixed-interval and variable interval –Fixed-ratio and variable-ratio
(a) Fixed- Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of time i.e. weekly quiz in a class; monthly pay check
(a) Variable-Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement that rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of time i.e. “pop” quiz in a class; fishing
(b) Fixed-Ratio Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responses The faster the subject responds, the more reinforcements they will receive. Ex. Pay a worker a dollar for every 10 tires they fix
(b) Variable-Ratio Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses This schedule is very resistant to extinction. Sometimes called the “gambler’s schedule”; similar to a slot machine; people who make sales pitches by telephone
III. Punishment: The Process of Punishment Decrease Decrease a behavior from happening again by following it with a negative consequence
II. A. Types of Punishment (1) An undesirable event following a behavior (2) A desirable state or event ends following a behavior
III. Punishment: B. Problems With Punishment Module 16: Operant Conditioning
II. B. Negative Effects of Punishment Doesn’t prevent the undesirable behavior when away from the punisher Can lead to fear, anxiety, and lower self- esteem Children who are punished physically may learn to use aggression as a means to solve problems.
II. C. Positive Effects of Punishment Punishment can effectively control certain behaviors. Especially useful if teaching a child not to do a dangerous behavior Most still suggest reinforcing an incompatible behavior rather than using punishment
IV. The Role of Cognition: New Understandings of Operant Conditioning Module 16: Operant Conditioning
III. A. Latent Learning Learning that takes place in absence of an apparent reward
III. B. Cognitive Map A mental representation of a place Experiments showed rats could learn a maze without any reinforcements
III. C. Overjustification Effect The effect of promising a reward for doing what someone already likes to do The reward may lessen and replace the person’s original, natural motivation, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated