Presentation on theme: "What is Operant Conditioning? Module 16: Operant Conditioning."— Presentation transcript:
What is Operant Conditioning? Module 16: Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior The frequency will increase if the consequence is reinforcing to the subject. The frequency will decrease if the consequence is not reinforcing to the subject.
Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) Author of the law of effect Behaviors with favorable consequences will occur more frequently. Behaviors with unfavorable consequences will occur less frequently. Created puzzle boxes for research on cats
Reinforcement/Punishment Reinforcement - Any consequence that increases the likelihood of the behavior it follows Punishment - Any consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior it follows The subject determines if a consequence is reinforcing or punishing
Negative Reinforcement Anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state Something the subject doesn’t like is removed Will strengthen the behavior
Punishment: Problems With Punishment Module 16: Operant Conditioning
Negative Effects of Punishment Doesn’t prevent the undesirable behavior when away from the punisher Can lead to fear, anxiety, and lower self- esteem Children who are punished physically may learn to use aggression as a means to solve problems.
Positive Effects of Punishment Punishment can effectively control certain behaviors. Especially useful if teaching a child not to do a dangerous behavior Most still suggest reinforcing an incompatible behavior rather than using punishment
Some Reinforcement Procedures: Shaping Module 16: Operant Conditioning
Shaping Reinforcement of behaviors that are more and more similar to the one you want to occur Technique used to establish a new behavior
Schedules of Reinforcement: Continuous Reinforcement Module 16: Operant Conditioning
Continuous reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows every correct response Most useful way to establish a behavior The behavior will extinguish quickly once the reinforcement stops.
Schedules of Reinforcement: Partial Reinforcement Module 16: Operant Conditioning
Partial Reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responses Includes the following types: –Fixed-interval and variable interval –Fixed-ratio and variable-ratio
Fixed-Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the first correct response after some defined period of time i.e. weekly quiz in a class
Variable-Interval Schedule A partial reinforcement that rewards the first correct response after an unpredictable amount of time i.e. “pop” quiz in a class
Fixed-Ratio Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responses The faster the subject responds, the more reinforcements they will receive.
Variable-Ratio Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses This schedule is very resistant to extinction. Sometimes called the “gambler’s schedule”; similar to a slot machine
Overjustification Effect The effect of promising a reward for doing what someone already likes to do The reward may lessen and replace the person’s original, natural motivation, so that the behavior stops if the reward is eliminated