Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment. The 18 th Century Political History - Political History - Reform Intellectual History - Intellectual History - Reason Cultural."— Presentation transcript:
The 18 th Century Political History - Political History - Reform Intellectual History - Intellectual History - Reason Cultural History - Cultural History - Individualism Social History - - Social History - Increased Literacy - Age of Aristocracy Economic History - Economic History - Mercantilism to Capitalism
Thomas Hobbes Lived in England (1588 – 1679) Claim to Fame: Wrote the Leviathan Big Ideas: government for self-protection. Thought that people were naturally bad and barbaric
John Locke (1632-1704) From England Claim to Fame: Wrote Two Treatises of Government
John Locke’s Big Ideas Natural rights to - life, liberty, property! He favored a republic (leaders and representatives are elected by the people) as the best form of government.
Voltaire (1712-1778) From France Claim to Fame: Candide Big Ideas: believed in freedom of religion and separation of church and state.
The Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) France Claim to Fame: Spirit of Laws, 1758
Montesquieu Big Ideas: All men are born equal. To prevent tyranny, there should be separation of powers in the government Claim to Fame! Greatly influenced the United States: three branches of government Executive Legislative Judicial "In a true state of nature, indeed, all men are born equal, but they cannot continue in this equality. Society makes them lose it, and they recover it only by the protection of laws."
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) France The Social Contract, 1762 Rou“social contract”
Rousseau Believed that total freedom is the natural condition of human beings, and that people enter into society (and into having social and political restrictions on their own freedom) voluntarily. Why do people do this? People trade natural liberty for civil liberty (liberty protected by the state/government) for the good of everyone – to benefit/promote the whole community. The appropriate form of government for any state depends on the character of the people. Big Idea = Government should be subject to review/be changed by its citizens (SOCIAL CONTRACT)
Thomas Paine (1737-1809 ) Encouraged the American Revolution Common Sense, 1776 The Rights of Man, 1791
Thomas Paine (1737-1809 ) “There is something exceedingly ridiculous in the composition of monarchy; it first excludes a man from the means of information, yet empowers him to act in cases where the highest judgment is required. The state of a king shuts him from the world, yet the business of a king requires him to know it thoroughly; wherefore the different parts, unnaturally opposing and destroying each other, prove the whole character to be absurd and useless. “
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) 1724 – 1804 German/Prussia Claim to Fame: Critique of Pure Reason, 1781 Big Ideas: Peace Through Laws “Dare to Know”
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) In law a man is guilty when he violates the rights of others. In ethics he is guilty if he only thinks of doing so.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759 – 1797) England EQUALITY/RIG HTS FOR WOMEN!!! Vindication of the Rights of Women “I do not wish them [women] to have power over men; but over themselves.”
Catherine the Great 1729 – 1796 Russia Big Ideas – Enlightened monarch (allowed many freedoms, and promoted art, science and education in Russia) Claim to Fame – longest ruling female leader of Russia
Benjamin Franklin 1706 – 1790 American Thinker, inventor – promoted the idea of civic duty, people should volunteer and work together “First American” Founding Father
Thomas Jefferson 1743 – 1826 Virginia (Albemarle County) Big Ideas – blended together many Enlightenment ideas Wrote the Declaration of Independence and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Capitalism – New Economic Idea Adam Smith - 1776 - The Wealth of Nations What did Smith believe in? Profit (making $) motivates people. Division of labor. Private ownership of property. Law of Supply & Demand. aw of Competition (it’s a good thing). Free trade.