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Enlightenment Thinkers

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1 Enlightenment Thinkers
Origins of Democracy Enlightenment Thinkers

2 Copy down these notes in your notebook: Enlightenment
18th century European movement in which thinkers (intellectuals) attempted to apply the principles of reason and scientific method to all aspects of society

3 Create a chart in your notebook that looks like this:
Enlightenment Thinkers Book Written Meaning of quote in your own words Importance of the quote Connections to Today Thomas Hobbes John Locke Montesquieu Rousseau Voltaire

4 Thomas Hobbes Wrote a book called Leviathan in 1651

5 Hobbes Quotation Quote from Leviathan: “The condition of man [in the state of nature] …is a condition of war of everyone against everyone.”

6 Hobbes’ Main Ideas People are selfish and greedy
Social Contract-To avoid chaos, people give up freedom to a government that will ensure order The government must be strong an able to put down rebellion

7 Hobbes’ Connections Today
His ideas are used to justify absolute power Many people today think Hobbes’ ideas are a bleak, but true view of how people and governments behave

8 John Locke Wrote Two Treatises on Government in 1690

9 John Locke Quotation Quote from Two Treatises on Government: “Men being… by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate and subjected to the political power of another without his own consent.”

10 Locke’s Main Ideas Natural rights-right to life, liberty, and property. (Every person has them) Rulers have a responsibility to protect those rights People have the right to change a government that fails to protect those rights

11 Locke’s Connection Today
Locke’s ideas influenced revolutions around the world and the authors of the US Declaration of Independence Later, people extended his ideas to include equality for women and others

12 Baron de Montesquieu Wrote The Spirit of the Laws in 1748

13 Montesquieu Quotation
“In order to have… liberty, it is necessary that government be set up so that one man need not be afraid of another.”

14 Montesquieu’s Main Ideas
The powers of government should be separated into 3 parts: Executive Legislative Judicial Prevent any one group from gaining too much power

15 Montesquieu-Connections Today
US has three branches of government and checks and balances (limit on power)

16 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Wrote a book called The Social Contract

17 Rousseau Quotation “Only the general will can direct the energies of the state in a manner appropriate to the end for which it was founded, i.e., the common good.”

18 Rousseau Main Ideas People are basically good, but become corrupted by society. In an ideal society, people would make the laws and would obey them willingly. Good of community should be put above individual

19 Rousseau Connections Today
Rousseau is considered a champion of democracy because of his ideas that political authority lies with the people Some dictators use his ideas about “general will” to justify their programs

20 Voltaire “My trade is to say what I think”

21 Voltaire Wrote 200 books, 2000 pamphlets
Exposed abuses-corrupt officials, slave trade, religious prejudice, freedom of speech Exiled (kicked out of France) for his ideas

22 Connection to today First amendment in the US Bill of Rights – Freedom of speech Freedom of religion

23 Class Reflection On the back of your chart… Explain in one paragraph (5 sentences) which Enlightenment Thinker you agree with the most. What do you agree with? Why?

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