Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment Philosophers. John Locke 1632-1704 England Locke was born in England in 1632 He left England because he valued individual freedom (of religion)"— Presentation transcript:
John Locke 1632-1704 England Locke was born in England in 1632 He left England because he valued individual freedom (of religion) Returned to England after the Glorious Revolution, in which the English got a new King who agreed to share power with Parliament and accept an English Bill of Rights He believed that all people could reason (think) and so they should be allowed to govern themselves Said that governments are formed to protect the rights of the citizens (rights being life, liberty and property) Power to rule must come from the consent (agreement) of the ruled Also said that because women think, they should be allowed an equal voice Influences in America: American Revolution; Declaration of Independence Ideas: People are naturally good and are born free with natural rights (life, liberty and property) Government should protect our natural rights
Baron de Montesquie u 1689-1755 France Idea: Power should be separated through three branches of government (legislative, executive, judicial) Checks and balances: branches should be able to stop the other from abusing powers Early life occurred at a time of significant governmental change. England had declared itself a constitutional monarchy in the wake of it’s Glorious Revolution (1688-1689), and had joined with Scotland in the Union of 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. French writer and philosopher His political treatise had an enormous influence on the work of many other, most notably: Catherine the Great, the Founding Fathers of the United States Constitution and Alexis de Tocqueville.
Voltaire 1694- 1778 France French Enlightenment writer and philosopher Distrusted democracy Only an enlightened monarch, advised by philosophers like himself, could bring about change Today, Voltaire is remembered and honored in France as a courageous man who fought for civil rights, the right to a fair trial and freedom of religion, and who denounced the hypocrisies and injustices of the ancient regime Belief in religious freedom Freedom of speech, thought and press Idea: Political and religious freedom. Wrote with sarcasm and sharp wit. Through his writing, fought enemies of freedom and intolerance. Freedom of religion and free trade. Influences on America: U.S. Bill of Rights; First Amendment to the Constitution
Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712- 1778 Geneva Rousseau believed that people are born good, independent and compassionate He believed that if people were left on their own (without a government), they would be happy and peaceful He thought that society’s institutions (like school, arts, the media, government) brought out the worst in people He believed in the Swiss model of small villages making decisions through direct democracy He believed in a “social contract” where people came together and ruled themselves with direct democracy Ideas: People are born free and equal Government must have permission to rule People agree to give up some freedom fro the common good (social contract) Major Writings: On the Social Contract, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 England Hobbes was born in England in 1588 and grew up during the English Civil War He saw people as being naturally wicked and said they could not be trusted to govern He wrote the Leviathan and argued that a monarch should have complete control – he called this absolute monarchy He said that democracy could not work because selfish people would always put their own interest ahead of the nations People should voluntarily give power to a king who would guide the community Ideas: Believed that humans were naturally selfish, wicked and evil We give up freedom in exchange for an organized society