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ACT English Test Prep Lesson 5 Hanyang University GAC Instructor: Samuel Kim
Review I. Subject-Verb Agreement Four cases: Simple, Intervening Phrases, Compound Subjects, Collective Nouns II. Parallel Structure Three types: Lists, Compared Ideas, Compounds
Pronouns I.Different kinds of pronouns II.Making references (subject/object with a pronoun) III.Making pronouns agree with their antecedents IV.Different cases of pronouns
I. Types of Pronouns There are three types of pronouns: Personal / Indefinite / Relative Personal: I, you, he, she, we, they, it Indefinite: one, anybody, everything,each Relative: who, whom, whose, which, that, what
II. Making References - Since the role of the pronoun is to stand in for another word, there must be no confusion as to which word the pronoun is replacing. The pronoun must clearly refer to one antecedent. Barry asked Jon to be on the basketball team because he is a good player. Because Jon is a good player, Barry asked him to be on the basketball team. They expect rain this evening. Rain is expected this evening.
III. Making Agreements - As is the case with verbs and their subjects, pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number and person. The houses on our block are smaller than that on the next block. The houses on our block are smaller than those on the next block.
III. Making Agreements - Some pronouns are always singular. A pronoun that refers to one of these indefinite pronouns must also be singular. Anybody, anyone, one, other, somebody, someone, each, everybody, everyone, nobody, no one, either, neither On the other hand, some pronouns are always plural. Both, few, many, others, several
III. Making Agreements - In case where the antecedent of a pronoun is an indefinite pronoun, the masculine pronoun has been traditionally used. Many people use “his or her” in such cases nowadays. Everyone is entitled to his opinion. OR Everyone is entitled to his or her opinion.
IV. Cases of Relative Pronouns There are three cases for relative pronouns. Subject / Object / Possessive Personal pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, they, we / me, you, him her, it, them, us / my, your, his, her, its, their, our (mine, yours, his hers, theirs, ours) Relative pronouns: who / whom / whose
IV. Cases of Relative Pronouns Mr. Kim, who is my friend, called yesterday. (S.) Mr. Kim, whom I know well, called yesterday. (O.) Mr. Kim, whose friendship is important to me, called yesterday. (P.)
IV. Cases of Relative Pronouns Mistakes to watch out for: SUBJECT CASE My friends and me went to watch a movie last night. My friends and I went to watch a movie last night. Claire is the one whom will do well on the test. Claire is the one who will do well on the test.
IV. Cases of Relative Pronouns OBJECT CASE There are three cases where pronouns are used as the object: 1. As the direct or indirect object, or object of a preposition I appointed him as the class representative. (DO) The postman gave her a letter. (IO)
IV. Cases of Relative Pronouns 2. As the object of an infinite verb I wanted her to come. 3. Following “to be” We thought the author of the book to be her. You expected the winner to be me.
IV. Cases of Relative Pronouns POSSESSIVE CASE There are two cases where possessive adjectives are used (my, our, your, her, his, its, their, whose): 1. To indicate possession, classification of something, or connection I borrowed her car. (The car belongs to her.) That is Jane’s and my report. (The report belongs to us.)
IV. Cases of Relative Pronouns 2. Preceding a verb acting as a noun (gerund): Our leaving early helped end the party. Whose testifying will you believe? Also, there are possessive pronouns (mine, ours, yours, hers, his, its, theirs, whose): I have a small house. His is bigger. They brought their car. We brought ours.
Review Usage of pronouns of different classes and cases : - Different kinds of pronouns (personal, indefinite, relative) - Making references / agreements - Different cases (subject, object, and possessive) Next Lesson: words and idioms commonly misused