Presentation on theme: "Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement"— Presentation transcript:
1Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Writers Inc. ( ;528)
2What is a pronoun?A pronoun is a substitute for a noun. It refers to a person, place, thing, feeling, or quality but does not refer to it by its name.MKQ1OYCg
3Types of Pronouns SIMPLE: I you he or she it we They Who what COMPOUND:myselfsomeoneanybodyeverythingitselfWhatsoeverPHRASAL:One anotherEach other
4Classes of Pronouns Personal Relative Indefinite Interrogative Demonstrative
5Personal Pronoun: takes the place of a noun Our coach made her point without raising her voice.I like coffee.John helped me.List of personal pronouns:I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, they, them, their, theirs, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its
6Types of Personal Pronouns: Reflexive and Intensive Reflexive pronoun: formed by adding – self or selvesMiss Sally Sunshine loves herself.Intensive pronoun: a reflexive pronoun that emphasizes or “intensifies” the noun or pronoun that it refers to.Leo himself taught his children how to read.List of reflexive and intensive pronouns:Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
7Relative Pronoun: relates an adjective clause to the noun or pronoun it modifies. Students who study regularly get the best grades.(the relative pronoun who relates the adjective clause to students)The dance, which we had looked forward to for weeks, was cancelled.(which relates the adjective clause to dance.List of relative pronouns:What, who, whose, whom, which, that
8Indefinite Pronouns: refers to unnamed or unknown people. All are welcome to attend the concert.Mary gave the book to another.I don't have any.Does anybody have a clue?Anyone can play that game.List of indefinite pronouns:All, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, each one, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, most, much, neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing, one, other, several, some, somebody, someone, something, such
9Interrogative Pronouns: asks a question What time is it?Which person are you talking about?Who are you?Whose purse is this?For whom will you vote?List of interrogative pronouns:Who, whose, whom, which, what
10Demonstrative pronouns: points out people, places, or things without naming them. This tastes delicious.I don't like this.That will run for an hour.Jim wrote that.These look good.List of demonstrative pronouns:This, that, these, thosee.com/watch?v=6e 1hZGDaqIw&featu re=related
11What is an antecedent?EVERY pronoun has an antecedent. An antecedent is the NOUN that the pronoun refers to or replaces.
12Pronoun Antecedent: Agree in number If the pronoun takes the place of a singular noun, you have to use a singular pronoun.If a student parks a car on campus, he or she has to buy a parking sticker.(NOT: If a student parks a car on campus, they have to buy a parking sticker.)Remember: the words each, either, neither, one, anyone, everyone, everybody, somebody, another, nobody, etc. are singular and take singular pronouns.Everybody ought to do his or her best. (NOT: their best)Neither of the girls brought her umbrella. (NOT: their umbrellas)Pronouns must also agree in GENDER!
13Cheat Sheet for Common Problems Collective Antecedents: Just as collective nouns usually take singular verbs, they also usually take singular pronouns when they are used as antecedents:The Baggins family was proud of its heritage.
14Cheat Sheet for Common Problems Compound antecedents joined by and ordinarily require a plural pronoun: Karl and Keith carried their skis to the liftCompound antecedents joined by and preceded by Each or Every take singular pronouns.Every dog and cat should have its own collar.
15Cheat Sheet for Common Problems Compound Antecedents with or, nor Singular antecedents joined with or or nor (either or; neither nor) take singular pronouns.Neither Osgood nor Mugwert could find his way out of a paper bag.It is either the Frog or the Prince that appeals to Buttercup. When plural antecedents are joined to singular antecedents, the antecedent nearest the pronoun determines its person, number, and gender.Neither the scoutmaster nor the boy scouts know they are walking into a surprise party.Neither the scouts nor the scoutmaster knows he is walking into a surprise party.