Presentation on theme: "Sandra Boyd. Personal Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. The most frequently used pronouns are called personal pronouns."— Presentation transcript:
Personal Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. The most frequently used pronouns are called personal pronouns. They refer to people or things.
Subject Pronouns A subject pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence. She is my best friend. It is my dog. Does he know the answer? You and I will meet later.
Object Pronouns An object pronoun is used as the direct/indirect object or the object of a preposition. Give the book to me. The teacher gave her a reprimand. I will tell you a story. Susan read it to them.
List of Personal Pronouns Singular Plural I we you he, she, it they Subject Pronouns me us you him, her, it them Object Pronouns
ACTIVITY 1 1.Write sentences using each of the subject pronouns. Underline each subject pronoun. 2.Write sentences using each of the object pronouns. Circle each object pronoun. Total of 16 pronouns. You can combine subject and object pronouns in you sentences.
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS Read the following sentences. Can you tell to whom the word She refers? Arachne competes with Athena. She weaves skillfully. The sentence is not clear because the word She could refer to either Arachne or Athena. Sometimes you must repeat a noun or rewrite the sentence. Arachne competes with Athena. Athena weaves skillfully.
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS The noun or group of words that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. When you use a pronoun, you should be sure that it refers to its antecedent clearly. Be especially careful when you use the pronoun they. Read the following sentence. They have several books about Greek myths at the library. Continue
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS The meaning of They is unclear. The sentence can be improved by rewriting it in the following manner. Several books about myths are available at the library.
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS When using pronouns, you must also make sure that they agree with their antecedents in number (singular or plural) and gender. The gender of a noun may be masculine (male), feminine (female), or neuter (referring to things). Notice how the pronouns on the next slide agree with their antecedents. Continue
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS 1. The myth of Arachne is amusing. I enjoyed it. 2. The bystanders see Athena. They watch her at the loom. In the first sentence, myth is the antecedent of the pronoun it. In the second sentence, bystanders is the antecedent of They, and Athena is the antecedent of her.
ACTIVITY 2 Do exercise 3, page 397 of your English Textbook. Follow directions carefully.
Using Pronouns Correctly Subject pronouns are used in compound subjects, and object pronouns are used in compound objects. He and Carmen wrote a report on the subject. (Not Him and Carmen) Tell John and me about Hercules. (Not John and I) Continue
Using Pronouns Correctly A preposition takes an object, just as many verbs do. The object of a preposition can be simple or compound. In either case, use an object pronoun as the object of the preposition. Lee read a famous myth to me. Lee read a famous Roman myth to John and me. Continue
Using Pronouns Correctly If you are not sure of which form of the pronoun to use, say the sentence aloud with only the pronoun as the subject or the object. Your ear will tell you which form is correct. Whenever the pronoun I is part of a compound subject, it should always be placed after the other parts of the subject. Similarly, when the pronoun me is part of a compound object, it should go after the other parts of the object. Continue
Using Pronouns Correctly Lee and I read some ancient Roman myths. (Not I and Lee) Mythology interests Lee and me. (Not me and Lee). Continue
Using Pronouns Correctly In formal writing and speech use a subject pronoun after a linking verb. The writer of this report was she. It is I. Continue
ACTIVITY 3 Do exercise 4 and 5, page 399 of your English Text. You do not have to write the sentences.
Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun is a pronoun that shows who or what has something. A possessive pronoun may take the place of a possessive noun. Read the following sentences. Notice the possessive nouns and the possessive pronouns that replace them. Continue
Possessive Pronouns Homers story is famous. His story is famous. This story is Homers. This story is his. Possessive nouns are in green. Possessive pronouns are in red. Continue
Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns have two forms. One form is used before a noun. The other form is used alone. ours yours theirs mine yours his, hers, its Used alone our your their my your his, her, its Used before nouns PluralSingular Continue
Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns are not written with apostrophes. The pronoun its, for example, shows possession. The word its, on the other hand, is a contraction of it is. Read the following sentences. Notice the meaning of the words in red type. Its central character is Odysseus. (possessive pronoun) Its about the adventures of Odysseus. (contraction of It is)
Activity 4 Do exercises 6 and 7, page 401 of your English text. You do not have to write the sentences.
Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not refer to a particular person, place, or thing. Does anyone know the story of Midas? Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. Continue
Some Indefinite Pronouns Continue SingularPlural another everybody no one anybody everyone nothing anyone everything one anything much somebody each neither someone either nobody something both few many others several All, any, most, none and some can be singular or plural, depending on the phrase that follows them.
Some Indefinite Pronouns Continue When an indefinite pronoun is used as the subject, the verb must agree with it in number. Everyone discusses the plot. (singular) Both talk about King Minos. (plural) All of mythology is about beliefs and ideals. (singular) All of the myths are about beliefs and ideals. (plural)
Some Indefinite Pronouns Continue Possessive pronouns often have indefinite pronouns as their antecedents. In such cases, the pronouns must agree in number. Note that in the first example the intervening prepositional phrase does not affect the agreement. Each of the characters has his or her motive. Several have conflict with their rivals.
Activity 5 Continue Do exercise 8 and 9 in your English text, page 403. You do not have to write the sentences.
Reflexive Pronouns Continue A reflexive pronoun refers to a noun or another pronoun and indicates that the same person or thing is involved. Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding –self or –selves to certain personal and possessive pronouns The woman found herself a book of folktales. Reflexive Pronoun
Reflexive Pronouns Continue SingularPlural myself yourself himself, herself, itself ourselves yourselves themselves Sometimes hisself is mistakenly used for himself and theirselves for themselves. Avoid using hisself and theirselves.
Intensive Pronouns Continue An intensive pronoun is a pronoun that adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun already named. George himself bought a copy of American Tall Tales. He himself paid for the book.
Activity 6 Continue Do exercises 10 and 11, page 405 of your English Text. You do not have to write the sentences.