2Personal PronounsA pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns.The most frequently used pronouns are called personal pronouns. They refer to people or things.
3You and I will meet later. Subject PronounsA subject pronoun is used as thesubject of a sentence.She is my best friend.It is my dog.Does he know the answer?You and I will meet later.
4The teacher gave her a reprimand. Object PronounsAn object pronoun is used as thedirect/indirect object or the object of a preposition.Give the book to me.The teacher gave her a reprimand.I will tell you a story.Susan read it to them.
5List of Personal Pronouns Singular PluralI weyou youhe, she, it theySubject Pronounsme usyou youhim, her, it themObject Pronouns
6You can combine subject and object pronouns in you sentences. ACTIVITY 1Write sentences using each of the subject pronouns. Underline each subject pronoun.Write sentences using each of the object pronouns. Circle each object pronoun.Total of 16 pronouns.You can combine subject and object pronouns in you sentences.
7PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS Read the following sentences. Can you tell to whom the word She refers?Arachne competes with Athena. She weaves skillfully.The sentence is not clear because the word She could refer to either Arachne or Athena. Sometimes you must repeat a noun or rewrite the sentence.Arachne competes with Athena. Athena weaves skillfully.
8PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS The noun or group of words that a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent.When you use a pronoun, you should be sure that it refers to its antecedent clearly. Be especially careful when you use the pronoun they. Read the following sentence.They have several books about Greek myths at the library.Continue
9PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS The meaning of They is unclear. The sentence can be improved by rewriting it in the following manner.Several books about myths are available at the library.
10PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS When using pronouns, you must also make sure that they agree with their antecedents in number (singular or plural) and gender. The gender of a noun may be masculine (male), feminine (female), or neuter (referring to things). Notice how the pronouns on the next slide agree with their antecedents.Continue
11PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS 1. The myth of Arachne is amusing. I enjoyed it.2. The bystanders see Athena. They watch her at the loom.In the first sentence, myth is the antecedent of the pronoun it.In the second sentence, bystanders is the antecedent of They, and Athena is the antecedent of her.
12ACTIVITY 2 Do exercise 3, page 397 of your English Textbook. Follow directions carefully.
13Using Pronouns Correctly Subject pronouns are used in compound subjects, and object pronouns are used in compound objects.He and Carmen wrote a report on the subject. (Not Him and Carmen)Tell John and me about Hercules. (Not John and I)Continue
14Using Pronouns Correctly A preposition takes an object, just as many verbs do. The object of a preposition can be simple or compound. In either case, use an object pronoun as the object of the preposition.Lee read a famous myth to me.Lee read a famous Roman mythto John and me.Continue
15Using Pronouns Correctly If you are not sure of which form of the pronoun to use, say the sentence aloud with only the pronoun as the subject or the object. Your ear will tell you which form is correct.Whenever the pronoun I is part of a compound subject, it should always be placed after the other parts of the subject. Similarly, when the pronoun me is part of a compound object, it should go after the other parts of the object.Continue
16Using Pronouns Correctly Lee and I read some ancient Roman myths. (Not I and Lee)Mythology interests Lee and me. (Not me and Lee).Continue
17Using Pronouns Correctly In formal writing and speech use a subject pronoun after a linking verb.The writer of this report was she.It is I.Continue
18ACTIVITY 3Do exercise 4 and 5, page 399 of your English Text. You do not have to write the sentences.
19Possessive PronounsA possessive pronoun is a pronoun that shows who or what has something. A possessive pronoun may take the place of a possessive noun.Read the following sentences. Notice the possessive nouns and the possessive pronouns that replace them.Continue
20Possessive Pronouns Homer’s story is famous. His story is famous. This story is Homer’s.This story is his.Possessive nouns are in green. Possessive pronouns are in red.Continue
21Possessive Pronouns Used before nouns Used alone ours yours theirs Possessive pronouns have two forms. One form is used before a noun. The other form is used alone.oursyourstheirsminehis, hers, itsUsedaloneouryourtheirmyhis, her, itsUsed before nounsPluralSingularContinue
22Possessive PronounsPossessive pronouns are not written with apostrophes. The pronoun its, for example, shows possession. The word it’s, on the other hand, is a contraction of it is. Read the following sentences. Notice the meaning of the words in red type.Its central character is Odysseus. (possessive pronoun)It’s about the adventures of Odysseus. (contraction of It is)
23Activity 4Do exercises 6 and 7, page 401 of your English text. You do not have to write the sentences.
24Indefinite PronounsAn indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not refer to a particular person, place, or thing.Does anyone know the story of Midas?Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural.Continue
25Some Indefinite Pronouns SingularPluralanother everybody no oneanybody everyone nothinganyone everything oneanything much somebodyeach neither someoneeither nobody somethingbothfewmanyothersseveralAll, any, most, none and some can be singular or plural, depending on the phrase that follows them.Continue
26Some Indefinite Pronouns When an indefinite pronoun is used as the subject, the verb must agree with it in number.Everyone discusses the plot. (singular)Both talk about King Minos. (plural)All of mythology is about beliefs and ideals. (singular)All of the myths are about beliefs and ideals. (plural)Continue
27Some Indefinite Pronouns Possessive pronouns often have indefinite pronouns as their antecedents. In such cases, the pronouns must agree in number. Note that in the first example the intervening prepositional phrase does not affect the agreement.Each of the characters has his or her motive.Several have conflict with their rivals.Continue
28Activity 5Do exercise 8 and 9 in your English text, page You do not have to write the sentences.Continue
29Reflexive PronounsA reflexive pronoun refers to a noun or another pronoun and indicates that the same person or thing is involved. Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding –self or –selves to certain personal and possessive pronounsThe woman found herself a book of folktales.Reflexive PronounContinue
30Reflexive Pronouns Singular Plural myself yourself himself, herself, itselfourselvesyourselvesthemselvesSometimes hisself is mistakenly used for himself and theirselves for themselves. Avoid using hisself and theirselves.Continue
31Intensive PronounsAn intensive pronoun is a pronoun that adds emphasis to a noun or pronoun already named.George himself bought a copy of American Tall Tales.He himself paid for the book.Continue
32Activity 6Do exercises 10 and 11, page 405 of your English Text. You do not have to write the sentences.Continue