2 Genetic EngineeringI Can… Describe, in general terms, how the genetic information of an organism can be altered to give the organism new genetically based traits.I Will…List examples of cloning of organisms occurring in nature.Briefly describe the steps of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) in cloning mammalsConnect the structure of DNA and process of protein synthesis with reasons why genetic engineering is possible.List the steps necessary to produce a transgenic organism
3 KEY CONCEPT: Genetic Engineering DNA sequences of organisms can be changed.Entire organisms can be clonedNew genes can be added to an organism’s DNAGenetic engineering produces organisms with new traitsPrinciples of genetics and cellular chemistry can be used to produce new foods and medicines in biotechnological processes.
4 Clone:genetically identical copy of a gene or an organismCloning occurs in nature:PlantsClone themselves from roots, stems and leavesPlant tissue contains many stem cells that can develop into many types of cells
5 Cloning occurs in nature: Bacteria:Clone themselves during asexual reproduction through binary fission
6 Cloning occurs in nature: Simple Animals:Clone themselves during asexual reproduction through budding e.g. HydraClone themselves during regeneration e.g. sea star
7 Cloning mammals – more difficult Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)Haploid nucleus removed from unfertilized egg gamete cellDiploid nucleus from somatic cell inserted into the egg cellStimulated (chemicals and electricity) to go through mitosis and start dividingEmbryonic bastocyst (mass of cells) implanted in uterusDevelops into cloned offspring2346
8 First clone of an adult mammal: Dolly the sheep (1977)Many other mammals cloned sinceBiotechnologycompaniesclone belovedpets
10 Cloning: Controversial ProsCreation of personal stem cellsOrgan transplantTreat diseasesSpinal cord injuriesSave endangered speciesConsLow success rateExpensiveHealth issues in cloneReduces biodiversityEthic of “creating” lifeWhen does life begin?
11 How and why can we do this? Genetic Engineering:Changing and adding genes to an organism’s DNA to give it new traitsClones genes not whole organismsHow and why can we do this?DNA is UNIVERSAL!DNA – 4 common nucleotides (A,T,G,& C)DNA – Common double helix structureRNA – Common 4 nucleotides (A, U, G, & C)Codons – code for 20 common amino acids the make proteins
12 Genetic engineering is based on: Recombinant DNADNA that contains genes from more than one organismEngineer crops to be resistant to cold or insectsEngineer crops to produce vitamins or medicinesEngineer bacteria to produce medicines or enzymes
13 Bacterial plasmids are often used to make recombinant DNA Plasmid - closed loop of DNA in bacteria separate from the bacterial chromosomeWill replicate on its own within the cell
14 Transgenic organism - has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome Transgenic bacteria used to make human insulin:Gene inserted into plasmidPlasmid inserted into bacteriaBacteria expresses gene
15 Transgenic plants are common in agriculture: Transgenic bacteria infect a plantPlant expresses foreign geneMany crops are now genetically modified (GM / GMO -organism)
16 Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic engineering: Possible long-term health effects of eating GM foodsAllergiesDiseasesPossible effects of GM plants on ecosystem and biodiversityKeystone species cascade effectNew vulnerabilities of engineered organism