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Skeletal & Muscular Systems Grade 12 Alyson Slomko.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal & Muscular Systems Grade 12 Alyson Slomko."— Presentation transcript:


2 Skeletal & Muscular Systems Grade 12 Alyson Slomko

3 Skeletal System  Provides the basic framework for the body  Plays a crucial role in movement  Protects internal organs and tissues from trauma

4  206 Bones  Bones store calcium and phosphorus  Bone Marrow produces new red and white blood cells and platelets  Consists of Axial Skeleton and Appendicular Skeleton Structure of the Skeletal System More Basic Information About Skeletal System

5  Axial Skeleton:  Consists of 80 bones  Includes the skull, spine, ribs, vertebrae and sternum  Appendicular Skeleton:  Composed of the remaining 126 bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulders and hips Axial & Appendicular Skeletons


7 Types of Bones Long Bones Short Bones Irregular Bones Flat Bones Ossification Cartilage

8 Long Bones  Bones of legs and arms  Diaphysis: main column of the long bone that contains yellow bone marrow (fats)  Epiphysis: end of the long bone that forms joints and contains red marrow (blood cells)

9 Short, Flat & Irregular Bones  Short Bones: bones that are almost equal in length and width  Wrists and ankles  Flat Bones: thinner and flatter bones  Ribs, skull, shoulder blade  Irregular Bones: irregularly shaped  Facial bones and vertebrae

10 Cartilage & Ossification  Cartilage: strong, flexible connective tissue  Found at the end of the long bones, nose and outer ear  Acts as cushion, reduces friction and allows smooth motion  Ossification: process by which bone in formed, renewed and repaired

11 Joints Ball-and-Socket Hinge Pivot Gliding Joints Tendon Ligament

12  Formed when rebound head fits into rounder cavity of joining bone  Provides the widest range of motion in all directions Ball-and-Socket Joint Examples: hip and shoulder

13  Hinge: allows for bending and straightening and promotes rotation  Elbow, knee, ankle and fingers  Pivot: limited rotation  Neck and head Hinge & Pivot

14  An oval shaped part that fits into a curved space  Allow bones to slide over one another Gliding Joints Example: wrist


16 Ligaments & Tendons  Ligament: bands of fibrous, slightly elastic connective tissue that attaches bone to bone and stabilize movement at joint  Tendons: fibrous cord that attaches muscle to bone

17  Connected to Bone by tendons  Performs work in the body  Voluntary: allows you to make movement when you want or need to  Involuntary: process that happens without conscious control Muscular System

18 Types of Muscle Smooth Muscle Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle

19  Acts on the lining of passageways and internal organs  Involuntary  Examples: blood vessels, digestive tract, lungs, bladder Smooth Muscle

20  Attached to the bone and causes body movements  Voluntary  Flexor: muscle that closes a joint  Extensor: muscle that opens a joint Skeletal Muscle


22  Type of striated muscle that forms the walls of the heart  Involuntary  The heart contracts about 100,000 times a day Cardiac Muscle

23 Major Muscle Groups (Skeletal) Arms Abdomen Shoulders Back ChestLegs

24  Atrophy: decrease in size and strength  Overuse: strain (tendon), sprain (ligament), tear, soreness, cramps  Tendonitis: inflammation of a tendon  Hernia: when organ tissue protrudes through an area of weak muscle  Muscular Dystrophy: inherited disorder in-which skeletal muscle are progressively destroyed Problems Associated with the Muscular System

25 Needs of the Muscular System  Weight bearing activity  Flexibility  Proper warm-up  Protein  RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation)

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