Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Movement and Forces 10.1 The skeletal system provides movement and protection 10.2 The muscular system makes movement possible 10.3 Muscles."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10: Movement and Forces 10.1 The skeletal system provides movement and protection 10.2 The muscular system makes movement possible 10.3 Muscles exert forces 10.4 Bones and joints at as levers
The skeleton is the body’s framework Skeletal system includes bones, ligaments, cartilage, and tendons anchors the body’s movement, provides support, and protects the internal organs
The skeleton is the body’s framework Bones: are classified by their shape: Long bones longer than wide Found in the arms and legs Short bones As long as wide Bones in the wrists and ankles Flat bones Thin and flat or slightly curved Ribcage and skull Irregular bones Shaped differently than long, short, or flat Spine and skull
The skeleton is the body’s framework Skeleton Provides the body’s shape Works with other systems to allow movement Two main divisions: Axial skeleton (& Appendicular skeleton) central part Includes skull, spinal column, ribs The bones in the appendicular skeleton are attached to the axial skeleton
What functions do vertebrae perform? They protect the spinal cord and support the cranium and other bones. How many bones are in the ankle and foot? 26 Which division of the skeleton includes the ankle and foot bones? Appendicular skeleton What is the only bone in the skull that can move? lower jaw
Divisions of the Skeleton - Axial Skeleton Line straight down your back ~ axis Sit, stand, twist…about your axis Axis ~ axial skeleton Support and protection Top: cranium – surrounds the brain Cranium + bones in face (jaw, cheek…) = skull Skull connects to the spinal column Spinal column (backbone): main portion of axial skeleton Made of vertebrae – bones stacked one on top of another Rib bones and sternum
Divisions of the Skeleton – Appendicular skeleton Bones that function to allow movement Arms and legs Upper part: bones of the shoulders, arms, and hand Lower part: Bones in hips, legs, and feet Bear all the body’s weight while standing Leg bones: strongest in your body
Bones are living tissue Not solid – have spaces inside – lighter in weight Made of cells and minerals Contain blood vessels Make, maintains, and break down bone tissue Minerals (ex: calcium) give bones structure and stiffness Bones: support and protect the body produce and store blood cells store calcium for the body
Bones are living tissue – two types of tissue Spongy bone Strong Lightweight Mineral part looks like a web Supports bones like beams support a building Can compress slightly Near the end of long bones: absorb forces Red bone marrow: produces blood cells New blood cells travel from marrow blood vessels in bone Blood brings nutrients to bone cells / carries away waste Compact bone Tough outer layer, surrounds spongy bone Basic supportive tissue Dense, organized in layers - STRONG
Why is the compact bone able to give the bone strength? It is dense. How does bone receive nourishment? Blood vessels bring in nutrients. Where are red blood cells formed? in the red bone marrow
Joints connect parts of the skeletal system Joint: a place where two bones in the skeletal system meet allow the body to be flexible Three types: immovable, slightly movable, and freely movable
Immovable and Slightly Movable Joints Immovable joint locks bones together like puzzle pieces Skull bones are connected by immovable joints Inside the cranium, the joints are called sutures (appear stitched - no space between) Slightly movable joint Able to flex a little Ex: ribs connected to sternum No space between bone, but bones connected by cartilage, so can move slightly Cartilage : tough but flexible connective tissue Ex: outer ear, nose, cushions between vertebrae, shark!
Freely Movable Joints Allow you to bend and move Most of the joints in your body Wrist, knee, elbow Bones are separated by a cavity containing fluid Ligaments (tissue) hold bones together at movable joints Materials between bones (ex: fluid, cartilage) keeps them from rubbing together Tendons ( tissue ) connect muscles to bones (but are not part of the joint) These all work together with muscles movement!
Types of joints (6) – based on type of movement Hinge Joint Ex: elbow and knee Arm movement: angle between upper and lower arm decreases = angular movement Ball-and-Socket Joint Ex: hip and shoulder Pitchers, swimmers, quarterback, shotput… Shoulder can rotate in a circle Rounded part of one bone fits into a cup-shaped part of another Pivot Joint Ex: elbow, connecting the radius and ulna Rotational movement – rotate side to side (turn a doorknob)
Types of joints (6) – based on type of movement Gliding Joint Ex: some joints in ankles and wrists, vertebrae Small flat bones sliding or gliding over one another Limited movement Saddle Joint ONE ex: thumb Like a joystick – forward and backward, side to side More limited than ball-and-socket joint Ellipsoid Joint Ex: in hands and feet at base of each finger and toe Allow bones to move like a hinge in different directions, but not rotate Different joints work together different movements!
Each motion had a limited range of movement. The types and ranges of movement differed. Different joints allow rotational movements, angular movements, and gliding movements.
Real World Example Sometimes people get diseases that make it painful to move their joints. One such disease is bursitis. Bursas are fluidfilled sacs at the joints that cushion movement. Occasionally, bursas become inflamed, making it harder for muscles and tendons to slide over bones. Movement is often painful. Bursitis can occur when people repeat the same motion over and over again. Tennis elbow is one form of bursitis. Bursitis can also result from heavy pressure on a joint. Resting the joint and applying ice may help reduce the inflammation. Teacher Demo Do the following demonstration to show how important cartilage and synovial fluid, a kind of lubricant, are to making joints work smoothly. The cartilage and fluid reduce friction and wear on the bones. Ask students to watch as you press and slide a wooden block that has been sanded—not varnished or polished— along a flat wooden board. You will feel friction along the way. Next, wrap both the board and block in plastic bags. The plastic acts like cartilage as you rub the two pieces of wood together. Now, rub cooking oil on the plastic bags and run the block along the board. The cooking oil performs like synovial fluid in the body does and makes it much easier to slide the two pieces of wood against each other. Ongoing Assessment Explain how joints allow movement.
How does position affect support? PROCEDURE 1.Hold the bag in your hand and keep your arm straight. Move the bag up and down. 2.Move the handles of the bag over your elbow. Again hold your arm straight and move the bag up and down. 3.Move the bag to the upper part of your arm and repeat the procedure. WHAT DO YOU THINK? At which position was it easiest to move the bag? At which position did the bag move the farthest? nearest to the shoulder in the hand