Presentation on theme: "European Age of Discovery"— Presentation transcript:
1 European Age of Discovery Why Europeans were interested in discovering new lands and some of the important explorers
2 Factors contributing to the European discovery of lands in the Western Hemisphere • Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in Europe• Support for the diffusion of Christianity• Political and economic competition between European empires• Innovations in navigational arts (European and Islamic origins) – printing press, astrolabe, and Mercator projection• Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator
3 Establishment of overseas empires and decimation of indigenous populations •Portugal—Vasco da Gama• Spain—Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortez, Francisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan• England—Francis Drake• France—Jacques Cartier
4 Means of diffusion of Christianity Migration of colonists to new landsInfluence of Catholics and Protestants, who carried their faith, language, and cultures to new landsConversion of indigenous peoples
5 Americas• Expansion of overseas territorial claims and European emigration to North and South America• Demise of Aztec, Maya, and Inca Empires• Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America• Forced migration of some Africans into slavery• Colonies’ imitation of the culture and social patterns of their parent country
6 Africa & Asia• European trading posts along the coast • Trade in slaves, gold, and other products • Colonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies, China) • Influence of trading companies (Portuguese, Dutch, British)
7 Columbian ExchangeWestern Hemisphere agricultural products such as corn, potatoes, and tobacco changed European lifestyles.European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles of American Indians (First Americans).European diseases like smallpox killed many American Indians (First Americans).
8 Impact of the Columbian Exchange • Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African slaves. • Slavery was based on race. • European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment. • The triangular trade linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Slaves, sugar, and rum were traded.
9 Export of precious metals • Gold and silver (exported to Europe and Asia)• Impact on indigenous empires of the Americas• Impact on Spain and international trade
10 Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations • developed advanced and complex societies before the arrival of the Europeans-(math-calendar)• established extensive trade with Pacific Rim nations• were strongly influenced by their contact with Asian and African civilizations• were relatively large, but not well organized
11 Which was an immediate result of the European Age of Exploration? Islamic culture spread across Africa and AsiaEuropean influence spread to the Western hemisphereIndependence movements developed in Asia and AfricaMilitary dictatorships were established throughout EuropeAnswer is B.
12 A major result of the Age of Exploration was A long period of peace and prosperity for the nations of Western EuropeExtensive migration of the peoples from the Western hemisphere to Europe and AsiaThe fall of European national monarchies and the end of the power of the Catholic ChurchThe end of regional isolation and the beginning of a period of European global dominationAnswer is D.
13 Which of these events during the Age of Exploration was a cause of the other three? Europeans brought food, animals and ideas from one continent to the anotherEuropean diseases had an adverse (bad) effect on the native populations of new territoriesWarfare increased as European nations competed for land and powerAdvances in learning and technology made long ocean voyages possibleAnswer is D.
14 The Native American population in 1492 was est The Native American population in 1492 was est. to be 25 million and by 1608 it was est. to be 1.7 million. This decrease was mainly a result ofCrop failures brought on by poor weather conditionsEmigration of Native Americans to Europe and AfricaWars between various native groupsDiseases introduced by the SpanishAnswer is D.
15 In Latin America during the early period of Spanish colonialism, the deaths of large numbers of the native people led toA decline in Spanish immigration to the AmericasThe removal of most Spanish troops from the AmericasThe importation of slaves from AfricaImproved health care in the coloniesAnswer C.
16 The influence of African culture on some areas of Latin America was largely a result of the American RevolutionBuilding of the Panama CanalSuccess of Communist RevolutionsAtlantic slave tradeAnswer is D.
17 One result of the European conquest of Latin America was that in Latin America Spanish became the major spoken languageNative American cultures flourishedThe Aztec religion spreadMany parliamentary democracies were establishedAnswer is A.
18 In Latin America, the Maya and the Aztec civilizations were similar in that they Showed little evidence of urbanization (cities)Lacked a strong central governmentDeveloped complex mathematical and calendar systemsUsed military weapons superior to those of EuropeansAnswer is C.
19 The printing press, the astrolabe and the Mercator projection were technological advances that contributed to theExploration and overseas expansion of the colonial empiresUnification of Germany and Italy in the late 1800’sGrowth of industry in Latin America in the late 1900’sSpread of Islam in the 700’s and 800’sAnswer is A.
20 Commercial Revolution Mercantilism: An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient; based on the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country.
21 Commercial Revolution European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies, and resources.A new economic system emerged.New money and banking systems were created.Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved.Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country.
22 Pioneers of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus: Developed heliocentric theoryJohannes Kepler: Discovered planetary motionGalileo Galilei: Used telescope to support heliocentric theoryIsaac Newton: Discovered Laws of GravityWilliam Harvey: Discovered circulation of the blood
23 Importance of the scientific revolution Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of natureFormulation of the scientific methodExpansion of scientific knowledge
24 Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that knowledge should be based on The experiences of past civilizationsExperimentation and observationEmotions and feelingsThe teachings of the Catholic ChurchAnswer is B.
25 Which was a result of the Commercial Revolution Decline in population growth in EuropeShift of power from Western Europe to Eastern EuropeSpread of feudalism throughout Western EuropeExpansion of European influence overseasAnswer is D
26 Which system developed as a result of the Commercial Revolution ManorialismCommunismBarteringMarket economyAnswer is D
27 According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies should be Acquired as markets and sources of raw materialsConsidered an economic burden for the colonial powerGrated independence as soon as possibleEncouraged to develop their own industriesAnswer is A.
28 Which statement best describes the effects of the works of Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton, and Rene´ Descartes?The acceptance of traditional authority was strengthened.The scientific method was used to solve problemsFunding to education was increased by the English government.Interest in Greek and Roman drama was renewedAnswer is B
29 Which was a characteristic of the policy of mercantilism followed by Spanish colonial rulers in Latin America?The colonies were forced to develop local industries to support themselvesSpain sought trade agreements between its colonies and the English colonies in North AmericaThe colonies were required to provide raw materials to Spain and to purchase Spanish manufactured goodsSpain encouraged the colonies to develop new political systems to meet colonial needsAnswer is C