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European Age of Discovery

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1 European Age of Discovery
Why Europeans were interested in discovering new lands and some of the important explorers

2 Factors contributing to the European discovery of lands in the Western Hemisphere
• Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in Europe • Support for the diffusion of Christianity • Political and economic competition between European empires • Innovations in navigational arts (European and Islamic origins) – printing press, astrolabe, and Mercator projection • Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator

3 Establishment of overseas empires and decimation of indigenous populations
•Portugal—Vasco da Gama • Spain—Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortez, Francisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan • England—Francis Drake • France—Jacques Cartier

4 Means of diffusion of Christianity
Migration of colonists to new lands Influence of Catholics and Protestants, who carried their faith, language, and cultures to new lands Conversion of indigenous peoples

5 Americas • Expansion of overseas territorial claims and European emigration to North and South America • Demise of Aztec, Maya, and Inca Empires • Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America • Forced migration of some Africans into slavery • Colonies’ imitation of the culture and social patterns of their parent country

6 Africa & Asia • European trading posts along the coast • Trade in slaves, gold, and other products • Colonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies, China) • Influence of trading companies (Portuguese, Dutch, British)

7 Columbian Exchange Western Hemisphere agricultural products such as corn, potatoes, and tobacco changed European lifestyles. European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles of American Indians (First Americans). European diseases like smallpox killed many American Indians (First Americans).

8 Impact of the Columbian Exchange
• Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African slaves. • Slavery was based on race. • European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment. • The triangular trade linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Slaves, sugar, and rum were traded.

9 Export of precious metals
• Gold and silver (exported to Europe and Asia) • Impact on indigenous empires of the Americas • Impact on Spain and international trade

10 Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations
• developed advanced and complex societies before the arrival of the Europeans-(math-calendar) • established extensive trade with Pacific Rim nations • were strongly influenced by their contact with Asian and African civilizations • were relatively large, but not well organized

11 Which was an immediate result of the European Age of Exploration?
Islamic culture spread across Africa and Asia European influence spread to the Western hemisphere Independence movements developed in Asia and Africa Military dictatorships were established throughout Europe Answer is B.

12 A major result of the Age of Exploration was
A long period of peace and prosperity for the nations of Western Europe Extensive migration of the peoples from the Western hemisphere to Europe and Asia The fall of European national monarchies and the end of the power of the Catholic Church The end of regional isolation and the beginning of a period of European global domination Answer is D.

13 Which of these events during the Age of Exploration was a cause of the other three?
Europeans brought food, animals and ideas from one continent to the another European diseases had an adverse (bad) effect on the native populations of new territories Warfare increased as European nations competed for land and power Advances in learning and technology made long ocean voyages possible Answer is D.

14 The Native American population in 1492 was est
The Native American population in 1492 was est. to be 25 million and by 1608 it was est. to be 1.7 million. This decrease was mainly a result of Crop failures brought on by poor weather conditions Emigration of Native Americans to Europe and Africa Wars between various native groups Diseases introduced by the Spanish Answer is D.

15 In Latin America during the early period of Spanish colonialism, the deaths of large numbers of the native people led to A decline in Spanish immigration to the Americas The removal of most Spanish troops from the Americas The importation of slaves from Africa Improved health care in the colonies Answer C.

16 The influence of African culture on some areas of Latin America was largely a result of the
American Revolution Building of the Panama Canal Success of Communist Revolutions Atlantic slave trade Answer is D.

17 One result of the European conquest of Latin America was that in Latin America
Spanish became the major spoken language Native American cultures flourished The Aztec religion spread Many parliamentary democracies were established Answer is A.

18 In Latin America, the Maya and the Aztec civilizations were similar in that they
Showed little evidence of urbanization (cities) Lacked a strong central government Developed complex mathematical and calendar systems Used military weapons superior to those of Europeans Answer is C.

19 The printing press, the astrolabe and the Mercator projection were technological advances that contributed to the Exploration and overseas expansion of the colonial empires Unification of Germany and Italy in the late 1800’s Growth of industry in Latin America in the late 1900’s Spread of Islam in the 700’s and 800’s Answer is A.

20 Commercial Revolution
Mercantilism: An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient; based on the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country.

21 Commercial Revolution
European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies, and resources. A new economic system emerged. New money and banking systems were created. Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved. Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country.

22 Pioneers of the scientific revolution
Nicolaus Copernicus: Developed heliocentric theory Johannes Kepler: Discovered planetary motion Galileo Galilei: Used telescope to support heliocentric theory Isaac Newton: Discovered Laws of Gravity William Harvey: Discovered circulation of the blood

23 Importance of the scientific revolution
Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature Formulation of the scientific method Expansion of scientific knowledge

24 Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that knowledge should be based on
The experiences of past civilizations Experimentation and observation Emotions and feelings The teachings of the Catholic Church Answer is B.

25 Which was a result of the Commercial Revolution
Decline in population growth in Europe Shift of power from Western Europe to Eastern Europe Spread of feudalism throughout Western Europe Expansion of European influence overseas Answer is D

26 Which system developed as a result of the Commercial Revolution
Manorialism Communism Bartering Market economy Answer is D

27 According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies should be
Acquired as markets and sources of raw materials Considered an economic burden for the colonial power Grated independence as soon as possible Encouraged to develop their own industries Answer is A.

28 Which statement best describes the effects of the works of Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton, and Rene´ Descartes? The acceptance of traditional authority was strengthened. The scientific method was used to solve problems Funding to education was increased by the English government. Interest in Greek and Roman drama was renewed Answer is B

29 Which was a characteristic of the policy of mercantilism followed by Spanish colonial rulers in Latin America? The colonies were forced to develop local industries to support themselves Spain sought trade agreements between its colonies and the English colonies in North America The colonies were required to provide raw materials to Spain and to purchase Spanish manufactured goods Spain encouraged the colonies to develop new political systems to meet colonial needs Answer is C

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