Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright
Chapter 9 The Production and Distribution of Food PPT by Clark E. Adams

2 The Production and Distribution of Food
Crops and animals: major patterns of food production New patterns: genetically modified foods Food distribution and trade Hunger, malnutrition, and famine

3 Thomas Malthus: 1798 Food Production Population Growth Time Amount

4 Thomas Malthus Did not consider changes in agricultural technology and science Did not consider dramatic decreases in fertility rates in some countries Was right, but ahead of his time

5 Crops and Animals: Major Patterns of Food Production
The development of modern industrialized agriculture The green revolution Subsistence agriculture and the developing world Animal farming and its consequences Prospects for increasing food production

6 U.S. Crop Yields

7 Major Patterns of Food Production: Past 40 Years and Next 40 Years?
Bringing additional land into cultivation Increasing use of fertilizers Increasing use of chemical pesticides Increasing use of irrigation

8 Major Patterns of Food Production: Past 40 Years and Next 40 Years?
Substituting new genetic varieties Rotating crops Growing many different kinds of crops Recycling animal wastes Grain over animal production

9 The Green Revolution Temporarily closed the gap between food production and need in some countries Heavy reliance on irrigation and fertilizers Negative impact on small farmers and culturally specific crops

10 Subsistence Farming: More or Less?
Labor intensive Technologically based Use of marginal lands Clearing of tropical rain forests Environmental degradation

11 Animal Farming and Its Consequences
Loss of 70% of grain crops in U.S. Overgrazing Mismanagement of animal manure Most widespread source of water pollution Source of 3% of greenhouse gases Sustainable on rural farms and with pastoral herding


13 Global Population and Grain and Meat Consumption
Fig. 9-9 here


15 Prospects for Increasing Food Production
Over last 30 years, food production has surpassed population growth World food consumption to increase 50% by 2020 Agricultural sustainability is highly dependent on soil and water conservation Global climate changes

16 40% Increase in Food Production Needed over Next Two Decades
Eat lower on the food chain, less meat Convert cash crops to food Eat less Increase crop yields Double Green Revolution!

17 40% Increase in Food Production Needed over Next Two Decades
Convert animal farms to grain farms Develop alternative foods Convert pet food to human food The promise of biotechnology

18 New Patterns: Genetically Modified Food
The promise The problems Policies

19 Biotech Crops in the United States
Fig here

20 The Promise: Transgenic Crops
Crossbreeds of genetically different plants Incorporation of desired traits into crop lines and animals Cloning of domestic animals

21 The Objectives of Genomics
Disease resistance Drought tolerance Improved nutritional value Incorporate human vaccines

22 The Problems with Genomics
Environmental concerns Not considered safe by all consumers Not affordable in all countries Major player in the future of agriculture Might keep food production in pace with population growth

23 Environmental Problems
Pest resistance to genetically engineered toxin Broad spectrum impact on nontarget species “Super weeds”

24 Food Safety Proteins cause allergic responses
Antibiotic resistance to human pathogens Plant produces new toxic substances

25 Other Problems with Genomics
Access to new technologies profit driven affordability in developing countries terminator technology: seed sterility Consumer acceptance

26 Food Distribution and Trade
Patterns in food trade Food security

27 Patterns in Food Trade Major changes in net importers and exporters of grain over the last six decades (Table 9-3) North America is the world’s “bread basket” or “meat market” Direct relationship between import levels and population growth

28 Patterns of Global Trade in Grain
Table 9-3 here

29 Food Security (see Fig. 9-13)
“Assured access for every person to enough nutritious food to sustain an active and healthy life” Family: personal and family food security Country: self-sufficiency in food and nutrition Global: sustainable food and nutrition for all countries

30 Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine
Nutrition vs. hunger Extent and consequences of hunger Root cause of hunger Famine Food aid

31 Nutrition vs. Hunger Hunger: lack of basic food for energy and meeting nutritional needs Malnutrition: lack of essential nutrients (amino acids, vitamins, and minerals) Undernourishment: lack of adequate food energy (Calories) One-quarter of U.S. population is obese

32 The Food Guide Pyramid

33 On the Other Hand 100 million children in southern Asia are underweight because of lack of food 11 million children <5 years old die each year in developing countries – half due to hunger and malnutrition

34 Root Cause of Hunger The root cause of hunger is poverty
20% of the people on Earth suffer from the effects of hunger and malnutrition Children are most at risk It is more likely that a pet cat will be fed than an undernourished child

35 Causes of Famine and Hunger Hotspots
Civil Wars Drought (FEWS) Government Incompetence

36 Food Aid “Give a man a fish; you have fed him
for today. Teach a man to fish; and you have fed him for lifetime." --Old Chinese Saying

37 Food Aid Fig here

38 Food Aid: True or False Alleviates chronic hunger
Helps local agriculture Disrupts local economy Contributes to ecological deterioration Postpones the day of reckoning

39 Food Aid and Carrying Capacity
Carrying Capacity w/o Food Aid Carrying Capacity with Food Aid The Lifeboat Ethic of Garret Hardin N Time

40 End of Chapter 9

Download ppt "Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google