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Food and Agriculture Chapter 15.

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Presentation on theme: "Food and Agriculture Chapter 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food and Agriculture Chapter 15

2 15-1: Feeding the World

3 Humans and Nutrition Famine – the widespread malnutrition and starvation in an area due to a shortage of food, usually caused by a catastrophic event

4 Humans and Nutrition The amount of energy that is available in food is expressed in Calories. The major nutrients we get from food are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Our bodies need smaller amounts of vitamins and minerals to remain healthy.


6 Humans and Nutrition Malnutrition – a disorder of nutrition that results when a person does not consume enough of each of the nutrients that are needed by the human body

7 Humans and Nutrition Forms of malnutrition Amino acid deficiency
Insufficient variety of food Low Calorie consumption

8 Sources of Nutrition Diet – the type and amount of food that a person eats The foods produced in the greatest amounts worldwide are grains, plants of the grass family whose seeds are rich in carbohydrates

9 Diets Around the World People worldwide generally consume the same major nutrients and eat the same basic kinds of food, but diets vary by region

10 Food Efficiency Yield – the amount of crops produced per unit area

11 World Food Problems World food production has been increasing for decades, but now food production is not increasing as fast as the human population is increasing

12 Droughts and Famines Drought – a prolonged period during which rainfall is below average, and crops grown without irrigation may produce low yields or fail entirely A drought is more likely to cause famine in places where most food is grown locally

13 The Green Revolution Green Revolution – worldwide, between 1950 and 1970, increases in crop yields resulted from the use of new crop varieties

14 The Green Revolution As a result of the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides, yields from green revolution crops are falling Chemicals required by new crop varieties can degrade the soil if they are not used properly

15 15-2: Crops and Soil

16 Arable land – farmland that can be used to grow crops
But, as the human population continues to grow, the amount of arable land per person decreases.

17 Agriculture: Traditional
Plows – pushed by the farmers or pulled by livestock Organic fertilizers, such as manure, are used to enrich soil while fields are irrigated by water flowing through ditches.

18 Agriculture: Modern Synthetic chemical fertilizers have replaced manure and plant wastes to fertilize soil. A variety of overhead sprinklers and drip systems may be used for irrigation

19 Fertile Soil: The Living Earth
Topsoil – the surface layer of the soil, which is usually richer in organic matter than the subsoil is Fertile topsoil is composed of living organisms, rock particles, water, air, and organic matter

20 Fertile Soil: The Living Earth
Several layers of soil lie under the topsoil. The bottom layer is bedrock, which is the solid rock from which most soil originally forms.


22 Soil Erosion: A Global Problem
Erosion – a process in which the materials of the Earth’s surface are loosened and transported by wind, water, ice, or gravity

23 Land Degradation Desertification – the process by which human activities or climatic changes make arid or semiarid areas more desertlike Example: Crops are planted too frequently and fallow periods (land that remain unplanted) are being shortened

24 Soil Conservation No-till farming – a crop is harvested without turning the soil over, as in traditional farming The seeds of the next crop are planted among the remains of the previous crop. Although this method saves time and reduces soil erosion, it is not suited for all crops

25 Salinization Salinization – The accumulation of salts in the soil
When water evaporates from irrigated land, salts are left behind

26 Pest Control Pest – any organism that occurs where it is not wanted or that occurs in large enough numbers to cause economic damage Worldwide, pests destroy about one-third of the world’s potential food harvest

27 Pest Control Pesticide – a poison used to destroy pests, such as insects, rodents, or weeds; examples include insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides

28 Pest Control Over time, spraying large amounts of pesticide to get rid of pests usually makes the pest problem worse. Pest populations may evolve resistance, the ability to survive exposure to a particular pesticide.

29 Pest Control Biological pest control – the use of certain organisms by humans to eliminate or control pests

30 Pest Control Biological pest control aims to:
maintain tolerable pest levels elevate plant defenses leave non-species unharmed the disrupting of insect breeding

31 Integrated Pest Management
The goal of integrated pest management is not to eliminate pest populations but to reduce pest damage to a level that causes minimal economic damage.

32 Engineering a Better Crop
Scientists may use genetic engineering to transfer desirable traits, such as resistance to certain pests, from one organism to another

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