2 Convoys Introduction Convoy Organization and Planning Non Tactical convoys must adhere to all state and consider federal regulations:WeightsAmmunition / Weapons Security.Hazardous Materials POL’s
3 Convoys Overweight / Wide Loads. Begin Planning - Use the acronym METT / TSL.Mission - gives the desired convoy objectives or results.Enemy:- Enemy poses no threat - Security takes a low priority.- Enemy poses a threat- Available security forces and Fire support take high priority.
4 Convoys Terrain - must be considered when choosing the route. Troops / Fire support - security forces availability.Time - make use of all time available.Space - relates to the distance the convoy will cover.
5 Convoys Logistics - two basic types used for convoys: - Tactical Convoy - Assumes that enemy contact is possible.- Administrative Convoy - Enemy contact is unlikely.
6 Convoys Orient all subordinate leaders using the five paragraph order. Situation:- Friendly Forces.- Support Units.- Enemy Situations.Mission:- Type of Cargo.- Origin.- Destination.
7 Convoys Execution: - General organization of convoy. - Time schedule. - Routes.- Convoy speed.- Vehicle distance / Speed.- Checkpoints.- Accidents / breakdown.- Separation from convoy.
8 Convoys- Action of the convoy / security forces in the event of attack.Admin and Logistics.- Cargo loading and unloading.- Control of personnel.NOTE: PROCEDURES AND PRIORITIES OF HANDLING DETAINEES, WOUNDED AND A PLAN FOR MEDIVAC.
9 Convoys - Cargo security. - Uniform and Equipment. - Billeting Arrangements.- Refueling and servicing vehicles.- Vehicle recovery.- Off load instructions.Command and Signal.- Location or position of leaders and key personnel.
10 Convoys - Succession of command. - Action of security forces commander.- Arm and hand signals.- Radio frequencies and call signs for all key personnel.Safety:- Hazards of route.- Defensive driving- Weapons safety / security.
11 Convoys Convoy Commanders Primary responsibilities. Issues Orders. - Creates convoy and operations orders.- Assigns appropriate subordinate leaders.Tactical Vehicle Loading.- Must provide space for security forces and vehicle reinforcements.
12 Convoys- Provision will sacrifice cargo space and affect load calculations.- Requires spread loading of critical cargo.- Request escort vehicles if available.
13 Convoys Administrative vehicle Loading. - Requires Convoy Commander to use logistical skills.- Utilize all cargo capacity.Convoy staging.- Top off fuel.- Pre stage vehicles in a guarded area prior to departure
14 Convoys - Place in desired order of march (dispersed accordingly). - Camouflaged while in assembly area.NOTE: IF A SECURITY FORCE COMMANDER HAS BEEN ASSIGNED, THEY SHOULD BE DEVELOPING PLANS ACCORDINGLY. CONVOY COMMANDER CAN ASK RECOMMENDATIONS ON PLACEMENT OF SECURITY AND ESCORT VEHICLES PRIOR TO VEHICLE STAGING.
15 Convoys Conduct briefing. - Convoy commander must continuously brief subordinates.- Keep subordinates updated on the enemy and immediate logistical situationsNOTE: THIS INCLUDES BRIEFING THE DRIVERS ON IMMEDIATE ACTIONS IN RESPONSE TO ENEMY ACTIONS
16 Convoys Route Reconnaissance. If possible - Convoy commander should conduct a physical reconnaissance of the route(s) prior to departure.- Best method - Fly the route.- Next Best - Drive the route.- At a minimum a thorough map recon should be done.
17 Convoys Check S-2 for updates on recent enemy sightings. If a physical reconnaissance can be done:- Convoy Commanders primary personnel will accompany.- Ensures a good decision on timing, speed, and order of march.
18 Convoys - Alternate routes must be identified. - Danger areas and roadblocks should be recorded as well.Tactical Vehicle Preparation.Vehicles are designed and configured around logistical considerations.
19 ConvoysVehicles must be modified and or reinforced to weather enemy action.Alter existing equipment; remove or secure the following:- Canvas and bows.- Straps across the rear.- Lower or remove windshield.
20 Convoys - All reflecting surfaces should be taped or removed. - Tape over headlights.Harden vehicles against the effects of the enemy using sandbags.NOTE: SANDBAGS PROVIDE PERSONNEL PROTECTION ONLY.
21 Convoys- Driver compartment: Floor and seat with double interlocked layers.NOTE: DRIVERS COMFORT AND ABILITY TO CONTROL VEHICLE MUST BE CONSIDERED.- Hood, and fender wells to protect personnel from the effects of mines.
22 ConvoysNOTE: BLAST AND FRAGMENTATION VECTORED UPWARDS CAN EASILY PENETRATE THIN METAL AT THOSE POINTS.- External fuel tanks and batteries: Cover to contain flames and spraying acid.- Truck bed; Double interlocking layers.
23 ConvoysNOTE: SANDBAGS CAN CAUSE FRAGMENTATION THROUGH SANDBLAST. THIS CAN BE PREVENTED BY COVERING BAGS WITH RUBBER MATTING OR ANY OTHER STURDY EQUIVALENT.- Sides of truck bed; Stack to provide lateral protection.
24 Convoys Mounted Security Force. Squad Leader / Vehicle Commander. - Position where best control of the vehicle / troops can be obtained.- Preferred location; Immediately to rear of cab in truck bed.
25 Convoys Assistant Driver, in ambush or other enemy action. - Will remain in vehicles vicinity.- Assists the driver in providing vehicle security.Sentries- Armed with M203 or Service rifle on automatic.- Stationed at each corner of vehicle.
26 Convoys - Collective role; Provide a 360 degree arc of observation. - Return suppression fire immediately, in case of enemy contact.Air / Sniper Sentinel.- Close to vehicle commander.- Scans sky and high ground- Provides warning of sniper or air attack.
27 Convoys Attached machine gunner. - Augment to security force. - On board vehicle; gunner positioned in the center of bed, facing the rear.- Position allows gunner to fire to the rear.- Provides good lateral protection and quick exit.
28 Convoys Remaining Squad Members - Face outboard. - Split between port and starboard sides of vehicle.- Assist in observation.- Return fire when directed.Additional areas Convoy and Security Commanders must consider.Communications
29 Convoys - Rarely will every vehicle have a radio. - If a security force is designated, a radio goes with the force.- Various type nets should be requested for fire support assets available.- Obtain information that will cover all units whose zones the convoy will move through.
30 Convoys Fire support. - Rear area will be covered by a target list. - If not; Submit a list to FSC of targets that address enemy locations or possible ambush sites.- Contact FSC if moving out of unit’s area, to process and coordinate fire support request.
31 Convoys Ambush Instructions: Before ambush. - Be alert for changes in familiar scenes along route.- Expect ambush upon demolition of mines, automatic weapons fire, and heavy sniper fire.
32 ConvoysDuring ambush.- Notify security force by radio call using pre-arranged signals.- Continue moving, maintain vehicle distance if possible.- If disabled steer off the road to allow passage of other vehicles.
33 Convoys- If disabled while moving through kill zone, mount a passing vehicle.- Don’t enter a kill zone if it can be avoided.- Provide flanking support fire into kill zone.- Security vehicles; Apply maximum base of fire, FIGHT AS A TEAM, and deploy upon command.
34 Convoys- Prime targets: Enemy automatic weapons, mortars, rocket positions and assaulting ground forces.After ambush.- Protect and care for wounded, MEDEVAC, ASAP.- After contact has been broken, reopen roadway insuring it is free of mines.
35 Convoys - Do not attempt to remove mines, mark mines and contact EOD. - Provide flank security while convoy passes through area.- When contact is broken, do not give chase.- Stay alert for counter attack.- Remember details.
36 Convoys Convoy Defense Techniques. Snipers. - Do not stop, if anything speed up.- If wind conditions allow, throw smoke to screen enemy observation.- Sentries can return fire in general direction to suppress sniper.
37 Convoys - Escort vehicle or FO’s can bring suppressive fires. - Convoy Commander should immediately inform higher headquarters.Air attack:- Shoot at attacking aircraft using all available weapons.- Put up large volumes of fire, accuracy is not important, volume!
38 Convoys - Fire at nose of aircraft. - Take cover if you have time. - Lie on your back if caught in the open.- Mounted crew serve weapons should aim slightly above the aircraft’s nose for head on targets.
39 Convoys Ambush (Road not blocked, Hasty Ambush) - Vehicle caught in the kill zone, continue to move until clear, find cover and concealment, stop and dismount.- Vehicle which has not entered the kill zone, find cover and concealment, stop short and dismount.
40 Convoys- Vehicles caught in kill zone that become disabled, conduct a vehicle unloading drill.NOTE: DEPENDING ON SITUATION DISMOUNTED TROOP PROVIDE SUPPRESSIVE FIRE ON ENEMY OR ASSAULT THROUGH ENEMY POSITIONS.
41 Convoys- Escort vehicles, find positions to return suppressive fire, this will support maneuver of security forces.- Security forces maneuver and assault based on rehearsals or frag orders.- Indirect fire and / or air strikes are called in on fleeing or fighting enemy.
42 Convoys Ambush (Road blocked, deliberate ambush) - Vehicle which has not entered kill zone, find cover and concealment, stop short and dismount.- Vehicle trapped or blocked in kill zone, after conducting vehicle unloading drill, assault or return fire as a base of fire.
43 Convoys- Escort vehicles find positions to return suppressive fire, this will support maneuver of Security forces.- Security forces maneuver and assault from outside kill zone based on rehearsals or frag order.- Indirect fire and / or air strikes are called in on fleeing or fighting enemy.
44 Convoys Rehearse Actions at Danger Areas. - Stress simplicity, aggressiveness, and rapid execution.- Use small unit tactics, battle drills, and patrolling techniques.- Counter ambush techniques when needed.
45 Convoys Direct Combat Loading of Equipment and Personnel. - Objective Area: Equipment needed to accomplish mission.- En route: Equipment which enables or assists in reaching its objective.- Routine: Equipment carried by all members.
46 Convoys- Control: Equipment used in assisting the Convoy or Security Commander controlling the convoy while moving and during actions at objective areas.- Water and food specified by Convoy or Security Commander.