2PATROLS“ The average ambush last for 90 seconds.” That is not to say that it will only last that long, what it means is that the outcome will be decided within the first 90 seconds. Fire superiority is the key, whoever can achieve and sustain fire superiority will more than likely win the fire fight.
3Basic Combat Formations Fire team and Squad combat formations are groupings of individuals and units for efficient tactical employment. The factors influencing the leader’s decision as to the selection of a particular formation are the mission, terrain, situation, weather, speed and degree of flexibility. Combat formations enable the leader to control the fire and maneuver of their units.
4Basic Combat Formations Column:Used when speed and control are governing factors.Favorable for fire and maneuver to either flank.Vulnerable to fire from the front because its own fire in that direction is limited
5Basic Combat Formations Wedge:Used when the contact is possible, but not certain.Provides all around protection, flexibility and is easy to control.
6Basic Combat Formations Echelon Right or Left:Used primarily to protect an exposed flank.Permits heavy firepower to the front and the direction of the echelon.Hard formation to control and slow moving.
7Basic Combat Formations Skirmisher’s Right or Left:Used when assaulting a known enemy position.Because the fire teams are in line, it provides maximum firepower to the front.Hard formation to control.
8Security PatrolUpon successful completion of this topic, the trainee will have an understanding of how to plan and conduct a security patrol.
9Purpose and Organization: Security PatrolIntroduction.Purpose and Organization:Purpose* Prevent enemy from infiltrating the area* Detect, destroy, and/or capture the enemy.* Prevent surprise attacks.
10Security PatrolOrganization* Organize patrol to make sure each individual, team, or unit is assigned a specific task.* Ensure all patrol members know how to perform assigned task.* Plan for maximum flexibility.
11Plan a Security Patrol: Begin preparation of patrol planning using six troop leading steps - BAMCIS.* Study the stated mission.* Prepare and issue the Warning Order - Use Reverse Planning.* Begin an estimate of the Situation. (METT-T and KOCOA)
12Security PatrolArrange For:* Reconnaissance - To observe as far forward as possible.* Coordinate the Patrol’s- Passage of lines.- Supporting Fire.- Logistical Support.- Other Patrol Leaders that are operating in the same or, adjacent areas.
13Security PatrolMake:* Reconnaissance to answer questions which arise.* Estimate - Develop course of action.* Selection of route to offer best concealment and avoidance of opposition and obstacles.
14Security PatrolComplete the Plan:* Prepare the Patrol Order - Using SMEAC.* Make final coordination - With all supporting and adjacent units.* Prepare map overlay.* Construct a terrain model.- Detailed- Expedient.
15Security PatrolIssue the Order:* Ensure all patrol members are present.* Precede the issuance of order with orientation.* Issue the Patrol Order.- Use SMEAC in sequence- Use terrain model.- Issue entire order before asking for questions.- Conclude with time check and announce time of next event.
16Security PatrolSupervise:* Inspect patrol members for readiness ( Physical and Mental).* Conduct rehearsal’s and Immediate Action Drills.* Make final adjustments to plans and organization.* Issue final instructions and report to unit commander the the Patrol is prepared for mission.
17Issue the Patrol Order: Security PatrolIssue the Patrol Order:* SMEAC Format.Orientation prior to SMEAC:* Weather* Time* Terrain* CBR considerations* Local population consideration
18Security PatrolSituation:* Enemy forces:- SALUTE - Provides a simple method of how and what to report about the enemy.- DRAW-D - Possible actions of the enemy.* Friendly forces:- HAS - Gives unit, location and mission
19Security Patrol- Location of any listening / observation posts, and patrols.- Effective time and place of any attachments or detachments* Assumptions.Mission:* Clear and concise statement* Who, What, When, Where, and Why
20Security PatrolExecution:* Commanders Intent.* Concept of Operations (How is it going to be accomplished).- Task organization of the Patrol.- Patrol movements (Method of Navigation)- Use of supporting fire.* Individual tasks (Give detailed information of individual duties).
21Security Patrol* Coordinating instructions- Time of assembly in assembly area.- Times of inspections and rehearsals.- Time of departure and estimated time of return.- Locations and actions associated with Departure and Re-entry of friendly lines.- Details on Primary and Alternate Routes.
22Security Patrol- Details of formations and order of movement.- Rally points and actions at rally points.- Actions in danger areas.- Actions in the event of enemy contact.- Estimated time and location of patrol debriefing and critique.
23Security PatrolAdministration and Logistics:* Give and changes to uniforms, equipment, rations, water, and ammunition.* Issue instructions for handling wounded and Detainees of war.
24Security PatrolCommand and Signal:* Identify the chain of command and succession of command.* Determine challenge and password.- Primary and Alternate.- Any change to challenge and password during course of patrol.* Hand and arm signals* Special signals.
25Security Patrol* Radio frequencies and call signs.* Position of the Patrol Leader.- Plan location for the best control of patrol, usually forward one-third of formation.- Position of assistant patrol leader for best assist in control during movement.
26Security PatrolConduct Security Patrol:Conduct Passage of Friendly Lines:* Depart Friendly lines.- Patrol moves to the assembly area as directed by the guide.- Patrol moves to initial rally point on friendly side of wire.1) Make final coordination as directed2) Communication check.
27Security Patrol- Link up with guide, guide directs patrol through barrier- Leader counts members as they pass through the departure point, ensure that they are heading on the correct compass heading.- Tell guide the number of patrol members- During security halt, the patrol adjusts to sights and sounds of the battlefield.
28Security Patrol- Patrol moves quickly and silently to the security halt position beyond unit’s barrier.* Reenter friendly lines:- The patrol halts and establishes a reentry rally point.- Contact the forward unit by radio and tell them patrol is ready to reenter.- Establish contact with guide, use far or near recognition signals.
29Security Patrol- Signal the patrol forward.- Patrol follows guide through the barrier.- Patrol leader, counts and identifies each patrol member through the reentry point.- Move to the designated area for debriefing.
30Security PatrolPatrol Movement:* Determine the patrols formation based on the following considerations.- Visibility, weather, terrain and vegetation.- Chance of contact with enemy.- All around security.* Determine location of teams and individuals in formation.
31Security Patrol* Exercise control.- Position self where patrol can be best controlled, Stay alert; pass on signals and orders.- Use arm and hand signals as primary means of communication.- Speak loudly enough to be heard, Speak directly in ear to avoid excessive noise.- When audible signals are used, use sound signals that are natural sounds and easily understood.
32Security Patrol- Use infrared equipment for sending or receiving signals, if available.- Use luminous tape to assist in keeping visual contact with personnel.- ACCOUNT FOT ALL PERSONNEL.* Employ Navigation Techniques- Assign one or more members as navigators.- Assign at least two pacers.
33Security Patrol- Use average of their counts for distance traveled.- Ensure pacers are separated.* Organize the formation to provide security while on the move.- Employ signs and countersigns within patrol- Ensure patrol does not silhouette when moving along high ground.
34Security Patrol- While moving, take advantage of all cover and concealment.- Disperse patrol consistent with control, visibility, cover and concealment.- Maintain visual contact- Night patrol;(1) Emphasize silent movement.(2) Ensure movement is slower.
35Security Patrol(3) be consistent with terrain, vegetation and enemy situation.- Maintain an even pace, avoid sudden movement.- Halt patrol occasionally to observe and listen for enemy situation.* Employ movement control measures.- Designate checkpoints and tentative rallying points before leaving friendly lines.
36Security Patrol- Designate rallying points en route to objective.(1) Designate point within friendly area as initial rallying point.(2) Tentative en route rallying points.- Designate action to be taken at rally points.- Plan for crossing danger areas before departing friendly lines.
37Security Patrol* Ensure each patrol member knows exactly what to do at danger area.* conduct immediate action upon enemy contact.Cross Danger Areas:* Bypass danger area is possible.* Choose most secure crossing point.* Employ appropriate signals* On near side, set up defensive perimeter.
38Security Patrol* Position point where the most likely avenue of attack can be observed.- Using rehearsed technique, cross danger area once it’s clear.- Immediately establish perimeter of defense upon reaching the far side.- Provide cover while crossing danger area.- Conduct head count on far side of danger area.
39Security Patrol* Take advantage of natural or man made noises to help cove movement.* Continue on with patrol.
50Security PatrolDirect Immediate Action Drill:* Conduct immediate action drills when unexpected contact is made with enemy forces.* Ensure all patrol members have rehearsed immediate action drills before leaving friendly lines.NOTE: IF TIME IS A FACTOR, PERFORM THE MOST CRITICAL IMMIDIATE ACTION DRILLS THAT PERTAIN TO THE MISSION.
51Security Patrol* When patrol sights enemy, determine whether to make or avoid physical contact.* Conduct an immediate halt drill upon sighting the enemy.* Conduct a hasty ambush if situation permits.- Signal for hasty ambush.- Designated member initiates ambush by opening fire or by prearranged signal.
52Security Patrol* Conduct Counter Ambush:- Move patrol swiftly into skirmishers formation and assault enemy upon shouts of “Contact front, left, right, or rear”- Offensive situations, continue to engage enemy until destroyed.- Defensive situation, stop assault.
53Security Patrol* Break contact as quickly as possible, continue assault or break contact if patrol is fired upon beyond 50 meters.* Determine whether ambush is a near ambush or a far ambush, conduct the appropriate counter ambush drill.
54Security Patrol* Attack by aircraft, move patrol quickly into line formation upon shouts of “Aircraft, front, left, right, or rear.”- Ensure formation is well spread out and at right angle to aircraft’s direction.- Direct patrol members into better concealed positions between attacks- Determine if aircraft should be fired upon.
55Security PatrolConduct Patrol Debrief:Information and Reports.* Patrol leader and every member of all patrols must be trained in:- Observation techniques.- Accurately reporting their observations.- Report all pertinent information to Patrol leader.* SALUTE reports should be used to report information, Written or oral.
56Security Patrol* Patrol Debrief Checklist.Upon return Patrol Leader and Patrol Members are debriefed as Directed.Patrol Critique.* Hold critique after patrol is fed and rested.* Prepare for future patrols by going over lessons learned.* Inform people on what the patrol accomplished at conclusion of critique.
57Patrol Routes and Overlays When planning a patrol the Patrol leader must plan the route based on time of departure and time of return, the mission statement, guidance from the unit commander, and the enemy situation. The following information is provided to assist the Patrol Leader in preparing an overlay showing the routes chosen.
58Patrol Routes and Overlays Information:Make a terrain analysis and select the route based on information available.* Select routes that will offer the most cover and concealment for the patrol, avoid danger areas if possible.* Select routes for return to help prevent enemy surprise along previously traveled routes.
59Patrol Routes and Overlays * Divide the routes into “legs” with each leg starting at a point which can be recognized on the ground and identified on the map.* Select locations for rallying points during map study for reconnaissance.- Select initial and en route rally points.(1) Pre-designate an initial rally point (IRP) by terrain features and grids.
60Patrol Routes and Overlays (2) Establish a procedure for actions at rally points.NOTE: RALLYING POINTS MUST BE EASILY RECOGNIZED AWAY FROM NATURAL LINE OF DRIFT AN DMUST HAVE COVER AND CONCEALMENT.- Establish locations for rally points en route.
61Patrol Routes and Overlays - Plan for the selection and designation of additional rally points en-route as the patrol reaches check points.- Plan for the selection of rallying points on both near and far sides of danger area that cannot be bypassed such as trails and streams.
62Patrol Routes and Overlays NOTE: THIS MAY BE DONE BY PLANNING RALLY POINTS THAT WILL BE DESIGNATED IN RELATION TO DANGER AREAS IF GOOD LOCATION SARE AVAILABLE; FOR EXAMPLE: 50 METERS THIS SIDE OF THE TRAIL OR 50 METERS BEYOND THE STREAM.
63Patrol Routes and Overlays * Estimate enemy capabilities based on enemy situations given.- Plan routes based on patrols ability.- Prepare clear, concise overlay.- Indicate point of departure (POD), check points, indirect fire targets, rally points, and point of return (POR).
64Patrol Routes and Overlays * Display a legend and marginal information on overlay.- Enter call sign of patrol, name and unit.- Prepare the target list.
66Terrain ModelThe following information contains steps of procedure on how to prepare a terrain model of an area of operations and how to brief other patrol members.Information:Select a secure area large enough to accommodate terrain model and patrol members during briefing
67Terrain Model* Clear ground to build the model, and conduct the briefing.* Use materials to illustrate pieces of tactical information.* Use data gathered from the evaluation of Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops and Time.- Consider what the unit must accomplish.
68Terrain Model- Consider factors that will affect mission accomplishment.(1) Known enemy locations.(2) Activities, strength of the enemy.(3) Environment impact on the unit and enemy forces.(4) Locations, planned actions, mission and routes, supporting fires of adjacent units.
69Terrain Model* Orient terrain model to North, and draw a North seeking arrow in the model.- Show direction the patrol is facing (magnetic North).- Show the relation to the general location to be taken.NOTE: FROM THE PRESENT POSITION TO THE AREA THAT IS PLANNED FOR PATROL.
70Terrain ModelShow all major terrain features and landmarks on the terrain model:* Indicate the terrain over which the patrol will move.* Specify key terrain, Observation, Cover and Concealment, and Avenues of Approach.
71Terrain Model - Key Terrain: (1) Identify critical terrain features which occupied by either the enemy or friendly forces, would allow them to control the surrounding areas.(2) Select areas (small clearings, bends in trails, and steep grades) that impede movement, prevent reinforcement, and / or deny access to other areas.
72Terrain Model - Observation. (1) Identify favorable fields of fire. - Cover and Concealment.- Obstacles(1) Identify man-made or natural obstacles.(2) Use natural obstacles to impede progress such as cliffs, stream embankments, or steep grades.
73Terrain Model(3) Use man-made obstacles such as fallen trees, barbed wire, land mines, booby traps, and cratered roads to supplement natural obstacles.- Avenues(1) identify the most likely avenues of approach.(2) Outline possible primary and alternate routes.(3) Emphasize likely danger areas.
74Terrain ModelShow all grid lines, routes, on call targets and check points.* Mark all grid lines, routes, on call targets, and check points.* Mark all friendly and enemy positions known.* Provide a legend, indicating which item it represents.
75Terrain ModelUse the terrain model in conjunction with a map, as necessary to visualize, to confirm, to clarify, and to supplement information provided by the map, aerial photographs and other sources.