2 The Middle KingdomPharaohs lost control of Egypt in about 2300 B.C. (nobles battled one another for power)About 200 years later, a new dynasty created a capital at ThebesThis began the Middle Kingdom, a time of stability, prosperity, and achievementLasted from about 2050 B.C. to 1650 B.C.
3 increased Egypt’s riches Egypt took control of other lands and forced conquered people to send tribute, or forced payments to the Egyptian pharaoh increased Egypt’s richesAdded more waterways & damsIncreased farmlandBuilt a canal between Nile River and Red Sea
4 During the Middle Kingdom, the arts, literature, and architecture thrived Colorful scenes of deities and daily life on walls and tombsPoets wrote love songs and tributes to pharaohsStatues and wall carvingsInstead of pyramids, tombs were cut into cliffs (about 63 tombs) Valley of the Kings
6 Middle Kingdom ended in 1670 B.C. A people known as the Hyksos (HIHK-SAHS) from western Asia, attacked Egypt- crossed desert in horse-drawn chariots, used bronze and iron weapons compared to Egyptians who were on foot using copper and stone weaponsHyksos ruled for 120 yearsAround 1550 B.C., an Egyptian prince Ahmose led a revolt to drive the Hyksos out
8 The New KingdomFrom 1550 B.C. to 1080 B.C., Egypt grew richer and more powerfulA queen named Hatshepsut (hat-shehp-soot) was the first woman to rule Egypt (ruled with her husband died on behalf of her nephew made herself pharaoh)Trade grew under her reignTraders exchanged wheat, paper, and tools for wood and furniture with Phoenicians (east of Mediterranean Sea)Phoenicians traded Egyptian goods to other people– spread across Middle East Made Egypt richer
9 Slavery became common in Thutmose’s reign Thutmose III (thoot-moh-suh), her nephew, became pharaoh after Hatshepsut’s deathConquered more lands Egypt grew richer from tributes, enslaved prisoners of war- put to work rebuilding Thebes (built palaces, temples, monuments)Slavery became common in Thutmose’s reignHad some rights (could own land, marry, and eventually obtain freedom)