2 Quick ReviewThe Nile Valley – Regular predictable flooding allowed people to settle in this rich fertile river valley.Natural BarriersUpper Egypt and Lower Egypt UnitEgyptian writing system – HieroglyphicsRise in governments – advances of farming, crafts, and trade created the need. Government responsible for public servicesSocial Classes - Family LifeThe Nile River had predictable flooding which allowed for plenty of crops – food for the people. They used irrigation and dams to control the water.Natural Barriers keep Egypt safe from invadersKing Narmer crowns himself king of Upper and Lower Egypt - double crownA system of over 100 pictures and symbolsGovernment kept up roads, public buildings, store food, disputes over landUpper class – nobles, priests, wealthy – lived on large estates along the river, had servantsMiddle class – business managers, artisans, lived in smaller home, dressed more simplyLower classes – farmers, unskilled workers, lived in small mud brick homes dirt floorsFamily life – men head of the family, however women had rights – could own proprety, could buy and sell goods , obtain divorces and upper class women could even perform religious ceromonies
3 Quick Review Religion - belief in many gods and goddesses Main god – Re the sun godLife after Death –Book of the Dead - magical spells to help obtain life after deathEmbalming – leads to introduction to medicineMummies – buried in tombs with personal items
4 The Old Kingdom 2600 BC – 2300 BCDuring this time the Egyptians built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohsGreat Pyramid – King Khufu – Great Pyramid of Giza
5 Land of ConfusionAbout 2300 BC, the pharaohs lost control of Egypt as nobles battled one another for powerAbout 200 years of confusion follows
6 The Middle Kingdom 2050 BC – 1670 BC Finally, a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power.The capital is moved south – from Memphis to Thebes
7 The Middle Kingdom 2050 BC – 1670 BC In Thebes, order is restored and Egypt becomes stableThis is the beginning of what historians call, The Middle KingdomIt is during this time, Egyptians enjoyed a golden age of stability, prosperity, and achievement.
8 The Drive for More LandDuring the Middle Kingdom, Egypt takes control of new lands and makes them pay tribute – or forced payments, causing Egypt to become even more wealthierPharaohs order new waterways and dams increasing the amount of land being farmed and built a canal between the Nile River and the Red Sea
9 The Arts Blossom During the Middle Kingdom Arts – Painters covered walls of temples and tombs with colorful scenes of the gods and daily lifeLiterature – Poets wrote love songs and tributes to the pharaohsArchitecture – Instead of building pyramids, pharaohs had their tombs cut into cliffs west of the Nile River. This area became known as the Valley of the Kings.
12 Who Were the Hyksos? The Middle Kingdom ends in 1670 BC As before, Nobles were plotting to take power from the pharaohsProblem this timeHyksos – from western Asia attacked EgyptThey were major warriorsThey crossed the desert in horse-drawn chariots and used weapons made of bronze and iron. Egyptians had always fought on foot with copper and stone weapons
13 Prince Ahmose The Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 150 years Around 1550 BC, and Egyptian prince named Ahmose led an uprising that drove the Hyksos out of Egypt.Ahmose Reign begins a new period called The New Kingdom
14 The New Kingdom 1550 BC – 1080 BCDuring the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its powerEgypt becomes even richer and powerfulMost pharaohs made empire building a priority – fought wars east into western Asia
15 A Woman Ruler Queen Hatshepsut About 1473 BC Hatshepsut came to powerShe ruled first with her husband, then after his death, she ruled on behalf of her young nephewShe finally crowned herself queen and becomes one of the few women to rule Egypt
16 Queen Hatshepsut She was more interested with trade than conquest Egyptian traders sailed along the coast of East Africa exchanging breads, metal tools and weapons for gold, ivory, ebony and incenseThese trade journey brought even more wealth to Egypt
17 Hatshepsut’s legacies Hatshepsut used some of this wealth to build monumentsOne of her greatest projects was a great temple and tomb in the limestone cliffs of the Valley of the Kings
18 Expanding the EmpireWhen Hatshepsut died, her nephew becomes pharaoh – King Thutmose IIIUnder Thutmose III, Egypt began aggressive wars of conquestThutmose’s armies expanded north to Mesopotamia and south of NubiaUnder Thutmose, Egypt controlled more territory than it ever had before
19 Thutmose’s Empire Empire grew rich from trade and tribute In addition to taking gold, copper, ivory and other valuables from conquered peoples, Egypt also enslaved prisoners of war.
20 Legacies of Two Pharaohs Amenhotep IV – becomes pharaoh c BC and tries to led Egypt in a new directionHe notices that Egypt’s priests were gaining too much powerHe introduces a new religion that throws out all gods, except AtonWhen the priests resisted, Amenhotep IV removed them from their position, seized their lands, and closed the temples
21 Legacies of Two Pharaohs Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaton – which means “Spirit of Aton”The Egyptian people feel that these changes have been an attack on Egypt itself.They refuse to accept Aton as the only godAkhenaton is so devoted to his new religion, he neglects his duties as pharaoh, his administration is inexperienced
22 The Hittites The Hittites attack Egypt Egypt lost most of its land in western AsiaEgypt’s empire shrinks as a result
23 The Boy King When Akhenaton died, his son-in-law inherited the throne King Tutankhamen – only 10 years oldKing Tut relies on help from palace officials and priests and restores the old religionHe rules Egypt for only 9 years, then dies unexpectedly
24 Why the fascination with Tut? He played a very small role in Egypt’s historyHe becomes more popular after his tomb was discovered in 1922AD by a British archaeologist, Howard Carter.
25 King Tut’s TombTut’s tomb contained the king’s mummy and treasures including a brilliant gold mask of the young king’s face.This tomb discovery was a thrilling discovery because most royal tombs in Egypt were looted by robbers long ago.
26 The End of the New Kingdom Ramses II – king from 1279 BC to 1213 BCUnder his ruleEgypt regained lands in western AsiaLaunched an ambitious building program – constructing several major temples – many built by slaves
27 Karnak at ThebesThe most magnificent temple built under Ramses II
29 Remember? Temples were considered houses for the gods and goddesses Most Egyptians prayed at homeTemples used by priests to preform daily temple ritualsSometimes temples served as banks storing valuables such as gold, jewelry, oils, and cloth
30 Egypt’s decline and fall After Ramses II, Egypt’s power began to fadeBy 1150 BC, Egypt’s empire was lost and they only controlled the Nile deltaBy 900 BC, Egypt came under the rule of one outside group after anotherLibyaKushAssyrians//