Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation Essentials ofOrganizational Behavior, 10/eStephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. JudgeChapter 13Conflict and Negotiation
2 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Define conflict and differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict.Outline the conflict process.Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.Show how individual differences influence negotiations.Describe cultural differences in negotiations.
3 Conflict DefinedProcess that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.
4 Transitions in Conflict Thought Traditional View All conflict is harmful and must be avoided Human Relations View Conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group and need not be negative Interactionist View Conflict is encouraged to prevent group from becoming stale
5 Functional Vs. Dysfunctional Conflict Functional: improves group performanceDysfunctional: hinders group performanceAssessing Focus of Conflict:Task – work content and goalsRelationship – interpersonalProcess – how the work is done
6 Desired Conflict Levels Source of ConflictLevel of ConflictLowModerateHighTaskFunctionalDysfunctionalRelationshipProcess
8 Stage I: Potential Opposition CommunicationBarriers ExistToo Much or Too LittleStructureGroup Size, Age, DiversityOrganizational Rewards, Goals, Group DependencyPersonal VariablesPersonality TypesEmotionality
9 Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Potential for conflict is actualizedParties “make sense” of conflict by defining it and its potential solutionsEmotions play a major role in shaping perceptionsPerceived Conflict – awareness needed for actualizationFelt Conflict - emotional involvement - parties experience anxiety, tension, frustration, or hostility
10 Stage III: Intentions The decision to act in a given way Inferred (often erroneous) intentions may cause greater conflict
11 Stage IV: Behavior Where conflict becomes visible Usually overt attempts to implement each party’s intentionsMay become an inadvertent stimulus due to miscalculations or unskilled enactmentsFunctional Conflicts: confined to lower range of continuum – subtle, indirect, and highly controlledDysfunctional Conflicts: upper range – highly destructive activities such as strikes and riots
12 Stage V: Outcomes Functional: Dysfunctional: Improves decision quality Stimulates creativity and innovationEncourages interest and curiosityProblems are airedAccepts change and self-evaluationDysfunctional:Group is less effectiveCohesiveness and communications are reducedLeads to the destruction of the group
13 Creating Functional Conflict Managers can reward dissent and punish conflict avoidersManagers must learn to accept bad news without sending cues that conflict is unacceptable
14 NegotiationProcess in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them
16 Distributive Bargaining Zones B’s Target PointA’s Target PointPlayerAB’s Aspiration RangeA’s Aspiration RangePlayerBB’s Resistance PointA’s Resistance PointSettlement Range
17 Necessary Conditions for Integrative Bargaining Parties must be open with information and candid about their concernsBoth parties must be sensitive regarding the other’s needsParties must be able to trust each otherBoth parties must be willing to be flexible
19 Individual Differences in Negotiation PersonalityLittle evidence to supportDisagreeable introvert is bestMoods & EmotionsShowing anger helps in distributive negotiationsPositive moods help integrative negotiationsGenderMen are slightly betterMany stereotypes – low power positionsWomen’s self-image as negotiators is poor
20 Global Implications Conflict and Culture: Insufficient research at this pointInitial evidence does suggest some differences in tactics and attitudeCultural Differences in Negotiations:Negotiating styles clearly vary across national cultures
21 Implications for Managers: Managing Conflict Use in the appropriate situations:Competition – quick action is vitalCollaboration – to gain commitment with consensusAvoidance – the issue is trivialAccommodation – when you’re wrongCompromise – opponents have equal power and hold mutually exclusive goals
22 Implications for Managers: Improving Negotiation Skills Set Ambitious GoalsPay Little Attention to Initial OffersResearch Your OpponentAddress the Problem, Not the PersonalitiesBe Creative - Emphasize Win-Win Solutions
23 Keep in Mind…Conflict is an inherent part of organizational life: probably necessary for optimal organizational functionTask conflict is the most constructiveMost effective negotiators use both types of bargaining and know the appropriate tactics
24 SummaryDefined conflict and differentiated between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict.Outlined the conflict process.Contrasted distributive and integrative bargaining.Applied the five steps of the negotiation process.Showed how individual differences influenced negotiations.Described cultural differences in negotiations.