10Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Potential for opposition realizedWhen individuals become emotionally involved, parties experience anxiety, tension, frustration, or hostility
11Stages III & IV: Intentions & Behaviors Competing (distributive)Collaborating (integrative)AvoidingAccommodatingCompromising
12Conflict Handling Behaviors HighCompetitionCollaborationCompromiseConcern for Own InterestsTwo dimensions are used to identify conflict management styles. Concern for self refers to the extent to which a person focuses on satisfying his or her own needs. Concern for others is the degree to which a person wants to satisfy the needs of others. These two dimensions combine to create five conflict management styles.The integrative style (high concern for self and others) focuses on openness, collaboration, and information exchange. The obliging style (low concern for self, high concern for others) focuses on the needs of others while sacrificing or ignoring personal needs. The dominating style (high concern for self, low for others) focuses on advancing personal goals at any cost. The avoiding style (low concern for self and others) focuses on suppressing, setting aside, or avoiding the issues. The compromising style (moderate concern for self and others) focuses on achieving a reasonable middle ground.Managers must consider several factors before deciding which style of conflict management is appropriate:The complexity of the problem and the need for long-term solutions.The amount of time that is involved.The importance of the issue.The power of various parties.AvoidanceAccommodationLowLowConcern for Other’s InterestsHigh6
13Distributive Versus Integrative Bargaining Distributive IntegrativeCharacteristic: Approach: Approach:Goal: Get as much of a Expand the pie; look for fixed pie as possible win/win optionsMotivation: Win-Lose (self serving) Win-Win (mutual gain)Focus: Positions InterestsInformation Low HighSharing:Duration of Short term Long termrelationships:Key Assumptions: Adversarial and hostile Collaborative and openproblem solvingRole of Trust: It’s for suckers! It’s the only real currency!
14NegotiationNegotiation: Process whereby two or more parties attempt to agree on the exchange rate for goods or services.BATNAThe Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) for someone for a negotiated agreement.
16Staking Out the Bargaining Zone E X H I B I T 13 – 4
17Issues in Negotiation Role of Mood and Personality Traits: Positive moods positively affect negotiationsTraits appear to have little significant effect on the outcomes of either bargaining or negotiating processes (except extraversion, which is bad for negotiation effectiveness)Gender Differences:Women negotiate no differently from men, although men apparently negotiate slightly better outcomes.Men and women with similar power bases use similar negotiating styles.Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and their success as negotiators are less favorable than men’s.
18Issues in Negotiation (cont.) Italians, Germans, and French don’t soften up executives with praise before they criticize. Americans do, and to many Europeans this seems manipulative.Israelis are accustomed to fast-paced meetings and so have no patience for American small talk.Indian executives are used to interrupting one another. When Americans listen without asking for clarification or posing questions, Indians may conclude the Americans aren’t paying attention.Americans often mix their business and personal lives. They think nothing about asking a colleague questions like, “How was your weekend?” (it’s a cultural ritual for Americans). In some cultures such a question is intrusive because business and private lives are kept totally separate.Many Americans live by the motto: “It’s not personal, it’s business,” whereas many other cultures live by the motto: “It’s not business until first it’s personal.”Source: Adapted from L. Khosla, “You Say Tomato,” Forbes, May 21, 2001, p. 36.
19Stage IV: Outcomes Functional Outcomes from Conflict: Increased group performanceImproved quality of decisionsStimulation of creativity and innovationEncouragement of interest and curiosityProvision of a medium for problem-solvingCreation of an environment for self-evaluation and changeCreating Functional Conflict:Reward dissent and sanction avoiders of functional conflict
20Stage IV: Outcomes (cont.) Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict:Development of discontentReduced group effectivenessRetarded communicationReduced group cohesivenessInfighting among group members overcomes group goalsMinimizing Dysfunctional Conflict:Emphasize common goals and objectivesEliminate elements of relationship that bread distrust