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Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Conflict and Negotiation 14-0 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education,

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Presentation on theme: "Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Conflict and Negotiation 14-0 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Conflict and Negotiation 14-0 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

2 Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell College Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 14th Edition Conflict & Negotiation  Week 10

3 Chapter Learning Objectives  After studying this chapter, you should be able to: –Define conflict. –Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict. –Outline the conflict process. –Define negotiation. –Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. –Apply the five steps in the negotiation process. –Show how individual differences influence negotiations. –Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations. –Describe cultural differences in negotiations. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-2

4 Conflict Defined  A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about –That point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict  Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations –Incompatibility of goals –Differences over interpretations of facts –Disagreements based on behavioral expectations Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-3

5 Transitions in Conflict Thought  Traditional View of Conflict –The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided –Prevalent view in the 1930s-1940s  Conflict resulted from: –Poor communication –Lack of openness –Failure to respond to employee needs Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-4

6 Continued Transitions in Conflict Thought  Human Relations View of Conflict –The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group –Prevalent from the late 1940s through mid-1970s  Interactionist View of Conflict –The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively –Current view Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-5

7 Forms of Interactionist Conflict Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group performance Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-6

8 Types of Interactionist Conflict  Task Conflict –Conflicts over content and goals of the work –Low-to-moderate levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL  Relationship Conflict –Conflict based on interpersonal relationships –Almost always DYSFUNCTIONAL  Process Conflict –Conflict over how work gets done –Low levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-7

9 The Conflict Process  We will focus on each step in a moment… Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-8 E X H I B I T 14-1

10 Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility  Communication –Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, over communication and “noise”  Structure –Size and specialization of jobs –Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity –Member/goal incompatibility –Leadership styles (close or participative) –Reward systems (win-lose) –Dependence/interdependence of groups  Personal Variables –Differing individual value systems –Personality types Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-9

11 Stage II: Cognition and Personalization  Important stage for two reasons: 1.Conflict is defined Perceived Conflict –Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise 2.Emotions are expressed that have a strong impact on the eventual outcome Felt Conflict –Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-10

12 Stage III: Intentions  Intentions –Decisions to act in a given way –Note: behavior does not always accurately reflect intent  Dimensions of conflict-handling intentions: –Cooperativeness Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns –Assertiveness Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall E X H I B I T 14-2 Source: K. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed., vol. 3 (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p With permission.

13 Stage IV: Behavior  Conflict Management –The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict  Conflict-Intensity Continuum Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall E X H I B I T 14-3 Source: Based on S.P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 93–97; and F. Glasi, “The Process of Conflict Escalation and the Roles of Third Parties,” in G.B.J. Bomers and R. Peterson (eds.), Conflict Management and Industrial Relations (Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1982), pp. 119–40.

14 Conflict Resolution Techniques –Problem solving –Superordinate goals –Expansion of resources –Avoidance –Smoothing –Compromise –Authoritative command –Altering the human variable –Altering the structural variables –Communication –Bringing in outsiders –Restructuring the organization –Appointing a devil’s advocate Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall E X H I B I T 14-4 Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89

15 Stage V: Outcomes  Functional –Increased group performance –Improved quality of decisions –Stimulation of creativity and innovation –Encouragement of interest and curiosity –Provision of a medium for problem solving –Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change  Dysfunctional –Development of discontent –Reduced group effectiveness –Retarded communication –Reduced group cohesiveness –Infighting among group members overcomes group goals  Creating Functional Conflict –Reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-14

16 Negotiation  Negotiation (Bargaining) –A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them  Two General Approaches: –Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation –Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-15

17 Distributive versus Integrative Bargaining Bargaining CharacteristicDistributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining GoalGet all the pie you canExpand the pie MotivationWin-LoseWin-Win FocusPositionsInterests Information SharingLowHigh Duration of RelationshipsShort-TermLong-Term Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall E X H I B I T 14-5 MineYours MineYours Distributive Integrative Source: Based on R. J. Lewicki and J. A. Litterer, Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1985), p. 280.

18 The Negotiation Process  BATNA –The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement –The lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement  The “Bottom Line” for negotiations Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall E X H I B I T 14-7

19 Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness  Personality Traits –Extroverts and agreeable people weaker at distributive negotiation – disagreeable introvert is best –Intelligence is a weak indicator of effectiveness  Mood and Emotion –Ability to show anger helps in distributive bargaining –Positive moods and emotions help integrative bargaining  Gender –Men and women negotiate the same way, but may experience different outcomes –Women and men take on gender stereotypes in negotiations: tender and tough –Women are less likely to negotiate Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-18

20 Third-Party Negotiations  Four Basic Third-Party Roles –Mediator A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives –Arbitrator A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. –Conciliator A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent –Consultant An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-19

21 Global Implications  Conflict and Culture –Japanese and U.S. managers view conflict differently –U.S. managers are more likely to use competing tactics while Japanese managers are likely to use compromise and avoidance  Cultural Differences in Negotiations –Multiple cross-cultural studies on negotiation styles, for instance: American negotiators are more likely than Japanese bargainers to make a first offer North Americans use facts to persuade, Arabs use emotion, and Russians use asserted ideals Brazilians say “no” more often than Americans or Japanese Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

22 Summary and Managerial Implications  Conflict can be constructive or destructive  Reduce excessive conflict by using: –Competition –Collaboration –Avoidance –Accommodation –Compromise  Integrative negotiation is a better long-term method Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall E X H I B I T 14-8


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